is defined by factors such as a person has attempted numerous times to withdraw
the substance being used, increasing the amount of usage, facing withdrawal symptoms
when ceasing the substance usage, continuing to use despite seeing the harmful
effects and spending most of their time seeking the substance (Ögel, 2001).
Individuals can be addicted to many substances such as cigarettes, alcohol or
drugs. Other addictions independent of physical substances, such as food
addiction based on behavior, game addiction, computer addiction, television
addiction, shopping addiction and internet addiction also exist (Greenfield,
1999; Kim & Kim, 2002).
substance addiction is the first notion coming to mind while talking about
addiction. However the notion of addiction includes different activities such
as internet addiction (Young, 1998), gambling addiction (Griffiths, 1995), food
addiction and video game addiction (Griffiths, 1993). With the technology
developments in the 21st century, addictions such as internet addiction and
social media addiction have taken their place within the list of important and
frequently encountered addictions.
addiction shares similar features with substance addiction. Here, internet
usage reaches a pathological level as “technological addictions” (Young, 1996).
Internet and technology addiction can be described as the situation where an
individual cannot control the usage with their own willpower, cannot refrain
from performing that act and feel withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the
technological product causing the addiction. While technological addictions can
occur in passive states such as watching TV, they can also be in active
addiction form while performing other acts such as playing video games
type of addiction discussed alongside internet addiction in recent years is
social network addiction. Various definitions exist within the literature
regarding social networks, such as: social interaction network (Çetin, 2009),
informal learning environment (Stevenson & Liu, 2010), advertisement and
public relations environment (Onat & Alikk?l?ç, 2008), online human
community (Buss and Strauss, 2009), marketing environment and the innovator
phenomenon of the internet (Akar, 2010).
networks are websites where individuals can create their profiles in a
registered system either publicly or semi?publicly,
share links, see other people’s lists and see the relationship status of other
people within the system while also allowing individuals in online groups to
share their likes and activities and also share messages, e?mails,
discussion groups, videos, audio chats and files (Boyd & Ellison, 2007).
The most essential features of these environments include allowing the
individuals to work with others and actively participate, give and receive
feedback and customize their space in a comfortable environment, in a two?way
communication process and interactive environment (Lee & McLoughlin, 2007).
Thus a form of communication was born, where discussion and sharing are almost
cost free and the individual is in the center.
of the social networks allowing individuals to spend time in cyber space
together with their loved ones, share information and have fun together is
Facebook. This software, first developed by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 at Harvard
University for the university students, is now one of the most recognized and
used social networks in the world (??man & Albayrak, 2014; Yaman &
popular social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Snapchat
and Whatsapp are followed and used actively by millions of people (Hergüner,
2011). Social network addiction has started to be observed with the increasing
rate of use. While these social networking sites increased in usage, they
brought positive results such as communication, interaction, sharing,
collaboration and socializing for users, yet they can also cause problems such
as anxiety of socializing (?ahin, ??leyen & Özdemir, 2012), decrease in
communication (Das & Sahoo, 2011; ??bulan, 2011), solitude (Sheldon, 2008,
2012), and addiction (Pelling & White, 2009; Wang, 2009; Wilson, Formasier,
& White, 2010).
network addiction needs to be included in the internet addiction or technology
addiction categories due to the messaging, online gaming and other interaction
activities by the individuals and problematic internet usage by staying
connected to the internet in carrying out these activities (Das & Sahoo,
2011; Karaiskos, Tzavellas, Balta, & Paparrigopoulos, 2010). Therefore, the
internet usage ratings are expected to rise in proportion to the increase of
social networking addiction among individuals.
purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook addictions and the addiction
levels of the students studying in the Sakarya University, Faculty of Sports
Sciences, Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department, concerning the
gender and class variables.
regarding the findings related to the study, participants, data collection tool
and the processes is given in this section.
274 students of the Physical Education students
Department of physical education in the Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore of Tamilnadu participated in
this study, which aimed at measuring the Facebook addiction levels of the
students. Participant selection in the study was carried out through
convenience sampling. By gender, 146 (53%) of the students are female while 128
(47%) are male. As for grade distribution, 65 (24%) of the students are in the
1st grade, while 69 (25%) are in the 2nd grade, 74 (27%) in the 3rd grade and
66 (24%) in the 4th grade.
Data Collection Tool
“Facebook Addiction Scale” developed by Çam and ??bulan (2012) was used as the
data collection instrument in this study in which the descriptive method is
used. The Facebook Addiction Scale consists of a single factorial model. The
load value of the 19 items on the factor vary between 0.57?0.73.
The factor in the scale accounts for 43.86% of the total variance. As a result
of the exploratory factor analysis, the scale was found to be consisting of 19
items and a single factor.
the confirmatory factor analysis carried out afterwards, the weight of the
factor varied between .55 and .77 for Facebook addiction. In the confirmatory
factor analysis, the findings were as follows, chi square = 767.26, sd = 143.02
(p < 0.01), RMSEA = 0.054, NFI = 0.98, CFI = .99, SRMR = 0.035, and IFI = .99 AGFI = 0.93. The 19? item internal coefficient of consistence of the Facebook Addiction scale was found as Cronbach ? .93. This value is seen as an acceptable value for the reliability level of the Facebook Addiction Scale. Data Collection Process The data of this study which aims to determine the Facebook addiction levels of the Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department students and examine the data in terms of various variables. The data was collected from 274 students who continue their studies in a public university, Sports Sciences Faculty, Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department in the fall semester of the 2015?2016 academic year, and through the application of the Facebook Addiction Scale. The data collection process lasted for approximately 2 weeks and special attention was paid to data collection from the volunteering students. FINDINGS In this section, the findings regarding the research are presented in terms of Facebook addiction levels, differences in the Facebook addiction levels in accordance with the gender and grade variables. Table 1. THE FACEBOOK ADDICTION LEVELS OF THE STUDENTS Test Mean Min Max sd % Facebook Addiction Levels 40.53 19 114 19.97 35 According to the analysis, the Facebook addiction levels of the students who participated in the study are around 35%. This represents the fact that the Facebook addiction of the group is at a low level. TABLE 2. THE ITEMS RATED HIGHEST AND LOWEST BY THE STUDENTS Items Mean How often do you choose to spend time on Facebook instead of going out with your friends? 1.83 How often do you find yourself trying to hide how much time you spend browsing Facebook? 1.86 How often do you find yourself trying to hide how much time you spend browsing Facebook? 1.85 How often do you check Facebook while having something else to do? 2.46 How often do you establish new connections with Facebook users? 2.49 How often do you choose to browse Facebook in order to get away from the negative thoughts in your life? 2.57 Analysis of the results suggests that students do not prefer to spend time on facebook rather than going out with their friends; they were not feeling depressive, down or tense and not trying to hide their behavior while browsing Facebook. In addition, another conclusion was that the students sometimes checked Facebook while doing other things, established new connections with Facebook users and used Facebook in order to escape a negative occurrence in their life. The innovations and developing technologies bring a new and different dimension into the lives of the individuals while offering them different options (Karaman & Kurto?lu, 2009). As can be seen, the results of the study reveal that even though they are not addicted to Facebook, the students choose from these options even if only occasionally. Table 3. The Facebook Addiction Levels of the Students by Gender Gender N Mean SD t p Facebook Addiction Female 146 37.31 17.34 2.88 0.05 Male 128 44.24 22.11 Analysis of the mean scores of the male students showed that their scores were significantly higher when compared to the scores of the female students. However, because the scores are still at low levels, the consideration is that the male students should not be qualified as Facebook addicts. TABLE 4. THE FACEBOOK ADDICTION LEVELS OF THE STUDENTS BY GRADE Test Grade N Mean SD Source of Variance df Squares Mean F P Facebook Addiction 1.Grade 65 38.0 17.9 Inter- group 3 3.26 0.22 2.Grade 69 36.9 19.8 Group Internals 267 1269.2 3. Grade 71 46.4 21.0 Total 270 389.25 4. Grade 66 40.1 19.7 Significant differences with regards to the grade variable were found in the Facebook addiction levels of the students as a result of the analysis. LSD test was applied in order to identify between which groups the significant differences took place. Table 5. Results of the LSD Test Grades Mean Dif. p Facebook Addiction 3. Grade 1. Grade 8.45 .013 4. Grade 2. Grade 9.53 .005 According to the LSD Test results, the Facebook addiction levels of the students in the 3rd grade are higher than the levels of the students in the 1st and 2nd grades. RESULTS AND SUGGESTIONS The findings of the study indicate that the Facebook addiction levels of the students in the Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department at Sakarya University are not at a serious level. Although the addiction levels are low, significant differences were observed with regard to gender and grade variables among the participants. The male students achieved higher scores in the Facebook addiction scale when compared to the female students and the students in the 3rd grade obtained significantly higher scores in the Facebook addiction scale in comparison to those in the 1st and 2nd grades. The fact that the addiction levels of the group represent low levels can be described as a decent state. Facebook addiction has possible negative effects on the lives of individuals, as shown in many studies. This is because Facebook addicts may show behaviors such as feeling as if they are left behind when not using Facebook (Denti et al., 2012), hacking the Facebook accounts of their partners and keeping them under control (Abhijit, 2011). Xu & Tan (2012) show that Facebook addiction may be causing loneliness and stress. In addition Facebook addiction has been identified as a cause of decreased sleep quality (Wolniczak et al., 2013). However, despite other studies, in this study the Physical Education and Sports Teaching students come into view as not being addicted to Facebook or having addictions at mild levels. Therefore, the students participating in this study are thought not to be carrying the symptoms of Facebook addiction. To help prevent addiction, teachers need to be role models for the students in our schools. When the fact that these pre?service teachers will be the teachers in the near future is taken into consideration, this finding of the study can be considered to be reassuring. The pre?service teachers of the Physical Education department are considered to be promising role models. Namely, since a teacher who is addicted will not be able to recommend their students not to be addicted, they will also not be able to be a good role model. Extension of computer and internet usage nowadays also increases the amount of time spent using the internet. Especially with the ability to access the internet service anytime anywhere through mobile technologies, addiction to Facebook is rising on a daily basis. Therefore, to prevent problematic internet use or increase in Facebook addiction levels, time spent on the internet and social media must be limited to certain levels. Moreover, it is important for educators to take further steps by holding events such as in? service training, seminars and briefings organized by the counsellors and teachers of IT, aimed at raising the awareness levels of the students, parents and other teachers regarding the dangers of social media addiction.