is defined by factors such as a person has attempted numerous times to withdraw
the substance being used, increasing the amount of usage, facing withdrawal symptoms
when ceasing the substance usage, continuing to use despite seeing the harmful
effects and spending most of their time seeking the substance (Ögel, 2001).
Individuals can be addicted to many substances such as cigarettes, alcohol or
drugs. Other addictions independent of physical substances, such as food
addiction based on behavior, game addiction, computer addiction, television
addiction, shopping addiction and internet addiction also exist (Greenfield,
1999; Kim & Kim, 2002).
substance addiction is the first notion coming to mind while talking about
addiction. However the notion of addiction includes different activities such
as internet addiction (Young, 1998), gambling addiction (Griffiths, 1995), food
addiction and video game addiction (Griffiths, 1993). With the technology
developments in the 21st century, addictions such as internet addiction and
social media addiction have taken their place within the list of important and
frequently encountered addictions.
addiction shares similar features with substance addiction. Here, internet
usage reaches a pathological level as “technological addictions” (Young, 1996).
Internet and technology addiction can be described as the situation where an
individual cannot control the usage with their own willpower, cannot refrain
from performing that act and feel withdrawal symptoms when unable to access the
technological product causing the addiction. While technological addictions can
occur in passive states such as watching TV, they can also be in active
addiction form while performing other acts such as playing video games
type of addiction discussed alongside internet addiction in recent years is
social network addiction. Various definitions exist within the literature
regarding social networks, such as: social interaction network (Çetin, 2009),
informal learning environment (Stevenson & Liu, 2010), advertisement and
public relations environment (Onat & Alikk?l?ç, 2008), online human
community (Buss and Strauss, 2009), marketing environment and the innovator
phenomenon of the internet (Akar, 2010).
networks are websites where individuals can create their profiles in a
registered system either publicly or semi?publicly,
share links, see other people’s lists and see the relationship status of other
people within the system while also allowing individuals in online groups to
share their likes and activities and also share messages, e?mails,
discussion groups, videos, audio chats and files (Boyd & Ellison, 2007).
The most essential features of these environments include allowing the
individuals to work with others and actively participate, give and receive
feedback and customize their space in a comfortable environment, in a two?way
communication process and interactive environment (Lee & McLoughlin, 2007).
Thus a form of communication was born, where discussion and sharing are almost
cost free and the individual is in the center.
of the social networks allowing individuals to spend time in cyber space
together with their loved ones, share information and have fun together is
Facebook. This software, first developed by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 at Harvard
University for the university students, is now one of the most recognized and
used social networks in the world (??man & Albayrak, 2014; Yaman &
popular social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Snapchat
and Whatsapp are followed and used actively by millions of people (Hergüner,
2011). Social network addiction has started to be observed with the increasing
rate of use. While these social networking sites increased in usage, they
brought positive results such as communication, interaction, sharing,
collaboration and socializing for users, yet they can also cause problems such
as anxiety of socializing (?ahin, ??leyen & Özdemir, 2012), decrease in
communication (Das & Sahoo, 2011; ??bulan, 2011), solitude (Sheldon, 2008,
2012), and addiction (Pelling & White, 2009; Wang, 2009; Wilson, Formasier,
& White, 2010).
network addiction needs to be included in the internet addiction or technology
addiction categories due to the messaging, online gaming and other interaction
activities by the individuals and problematic internet usage by staying
connected to the internet in carrying out these activities (Das & Sahoo,
2011; Karaiskos, Tzavellas, Balta, & Paparrigopoulos, 2010). Therefore, the
internet usage ratings are expected to rise in proportion to the increase of
social networking addiction among individuals.
purpose of this study is to determine the Facebook addictions and the addiction
levels of the students studying in the Sakarya University, Faculty of Sports
Sciences, Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department, concerning the
gender and class variables.
regarding the findings related to the study, participants, data collection tool
and the processes is given in this section.
274 students of the Physical Education students
Department of physical education in the Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore of Tamilnadu participated in
this study, which aimed at measuring the Facebook addiction levels of the
students. Participant selection in the study was carried out through
convenience sampling. By gender, 146 (53%) of the students are female while 128
(47%) are male. As for grade distribution, 65 (24%) of the students are in the
1st grade, while 69 (25%) are in the 2nd grade, 74 (27%) in the 3rd grade and
66 (24%) in the 4th grade.
Data Collection Tool
“Facebook Addiction Scale” developed by Çam and ??bulan (2012) was used as the
data collection instrument in this study in which the descriptive method is
used. The Facebook Addiction Scale consists of a single factorial model. The
load value of the 19 items on the factor vary between 0.57?0.73.
The factor in the scale accounts for 43.86% of the total variance. As a result
of the exploratory factor analysis, the scale was found to be consisting of 19
items and a single factor.
the confirmatory factor analysis carried out afterwards, the weight of the
factor varied between .55 and .77 for Facebook addiction. In the confirmatory
factor analysis, the findings were as follows, chi square = 767.26, sd = 143.02