Agriculture has been highly valued in Unites States

Agriculture has been
highly valued in Unites States since they have fed from farming and farmers
contributed to society. By the agricultural industries developed, they became
available to produce large yield. Government founding, improving in farming
machinery, better seeds, and high quality fertilizer have made more success in
farming and made more money for the agricultural industries (USA usemabassy, American Agriculture: Its Changing
Significance. Retrieved from
The GMO seed which is genetically modified organism is the one that accelerated
the industry. It is not wonder why people prefer GMO seed. GMO seed has desired
trait like disease resistance or drought tolerance, safe for human, animal, and
environment. Also these seeds grow into plants that might use water more
efficiently or better withstand pests like bugs or weeds, which means they may
require less farmland to grow (Moderag, The
science inside the GMO seed (2017, Feb 1)  However, there are disputes about GM seeds.
The GM food might cause cancer, premature death, and Antibiotic-resistant
bacteria can resist antibiotics, making them hard to kill (Treacy Colbert,
Health line. GMO pros and cons. Retrieved from
This is not only the problem but GMO Seed Company’s monopoly on sale of seeds
is also a significant problem. What economists are saying is that if four
companies have power on 40 percent of a market, it’s no longer competitive to
other small businesses. That is what is happening in current GMO seed industries.
There are big four companies seize the power of seed industries and Monsanto which
is the largest seed’s company in the world has the power in the GMO seed
industries. These companies own 80% of corn market and 70% of the soybean
market in United States. According to the research done by Washington State
University, when GM soybeans came to dominate the market in the year of 2000 to
2010, the seed’s price increased 230%. The cost for Monsanto’s soybeans in 2010
was $70 per bag, since 2001 a 143% increase in the price of GM seed. (Ken
Roseboro, Food Democracy Now. (2013, Oct 4) The GMO Seed Monopoly: fewer
choices, higher prices. Retrieved from monopo ly_fewer_
choices_higher_prices). This is huge increase in cost and it is killing

            There are three regulatory agency which control the GMO
distributions and they are Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). First
of all, Environmental Protection Agency regulates bio pesticides. If the crops
has an issue with bio pesticides, the producer must identify that it is not
toxic and the crop is safe for human to be eaten. The second agency, Food and
Drug Administration, has a duty to inquiry the GM crops are not harmful to
human. (Federation of American scientists, Agricultural biosecurity, retrieved
The last agency is USDA and they develop and execute the federal laws about
anything that is related to farming. Those are three agencies that regulate GM
food products and the laws about GM crops. Unlike to GM crops, there are
different regulations to grow organic food and it is complex to farmers. The
land must be free from any harmful substances that prohibited on the National
List for three years and have buffer zone and boundaries to prevent the land
affected from unexpected prohibited substances. Other than that, they should
keep the soil erosion at minimum level, non-chemical application must be used
to manage the land and crops, and there are so much rules about organic farming
in National List. There’s much more to consider than simply National Organic
Program (NOP) land policy, such as taxes, ease of access, soil quality, and
water availability.

            The heirloom food is that plants and animals were grown
in earlier time but it is not dealt in today’s agriculture. There are hundred
kinds of plants and animals that we have never had because the most agriculture
system treat only few kinds of them. I have also never had any heirloom food
but they say that heirloom foods are more flavorful and strong to local pest
and disease. One more good fact is that because only small land farmer grows
those heirloom plant, when we buy them, we can support heirloom plants farmers.
This heirloom food were showed up at least 50 years ago and those were so
commonly eaten by people who get old now. Unfortunately, at that time the
transportation was not developed to deliver so they had a difficulties to sell
it and the farmers stopped to grow heirloom plants. However, currently heirloom
plants are getting popular and demanded by people. Because old people who have
tasted heirloom fruits want them, chefs who desire more flavorful plants want
them, and the expectations to food is getting higher by people.  As person desiring good health and
environmental conditions, I would like to support the practices of American
farmers producing organic and heirloom foods. Organic foods might cost little
more than GM and hybrid food but more money would be worth it. I mean they put
more effort and they help you to keep your body healthy. We cannot cover our
body that is polluted and it takes more money to recover it with medicine. Of
course I will spend more money to buy health, safe, non-chemical, and
eco-friendly organic food. Also as an epicure, I would like to support the
heirloom farmers. Simply because it has more flavor, taste, and nutritious.
What would you purchase, GM food or organic heirloom foods? Of course organic!
(Sam Cho, ORGANIC CONSUMERS ASSOCIATION. (2015, march 24)Why you should grow heirloom seeds, retrieved from


The Smithfields Field
was founded by Joseph W. Luter and his son Joseph W in Smithfield, Virginia.
Luter, Jr., opened their meatpacking plant on the former site of the American
Peanut Corporation along the banks of the Pagan River. Their town had great
reputation on producing hams and meats in late 1700s and the company grew well
during thirty years. However they had a bankruptcy under the ownership of
Liberty Properties. This crisis went over by returning of Joseph W. Luter 3 and
the companied started to grow fast. In 1995 Smithfield purchased John Morrell
& Co. and it helped them to lead the US pork processing industries and in
late 1990s they expanded the company to Poland and Romania. Above all their hog
production operation achieved great accomplishment and expanded the company. C.
Larry Pope became president and CEO in 2006 and the company expanded its focus
on consumer packaged meats. Dennis Treacy in 2010 the company’s first chief
sustainability officer, formalized the company’s sustainability practices under
the six pillars:  In 2011 they began to
focus on their marketing and sales and put effort on 12 strategic meat packing
brands. (Smithfield Foods, retrieved from I think the major foods they
are producing are ham as the Smith’s high reputation, bacon, sausages, and
packaged meats. Smithfield Foods Company is a big wholesaler so the main
targets are retailer and big markets. Usually sausages, hams, and bacons are
consumed by restaurant and the hams are consumed by deli. Smithfield put on
effort to keep the environment healthy. They regulate the GHG emissions to
reduce over 25% by 2010 to 2015 and reduce natural resource demand and try to
comply 100% of the environmental rules. Also they have been working hard to
decrease 5% energy consumption and 10% water use and reduce 10% solid waste.
About the animal care, they have facility to maintain a systematic program
based on the North American Meat Institute’s animal handling guidelines and
audit guide and keep U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Process Verified
Program (PVP) certification. Moreover, they have met the conversion of group
housing for the pregnant sows. (Smithfield, retrieved from – report/2016/animal-care). Compared
to the USDA regulating to the process of organic food, Smithfield Company is
more than that level I guess. According to the data and research I have made I
was so wonder about their so many certifications for the packaged meat,
producing meat, growing hogs, and every facilities to be clean. This was so

            In Italy there was a protest to stop McDonald’s near the
Spanish Steps in Rome in 1986 and it is called slow food. At the same time, there was cheap wine disaster which
brought 19 people were dead and hundreds of people were poisoned by the cheap
wine methanol. After the slow food movement protest begins, people did not eat
fast food and brandished bowls of penne and other home-cooked Italian dishes to
show their anger and their dissatisfaction with fast food. Carlo Petrini who
raised the slow foods movement said that this was the middle of the crisis of
Italy. Through this history slow food begin to spread out to the world. Slow
food is regional and local food products and shows sign to aware of food’s
origin. This
movement were purpose on encouraging their local foods growing and prevent them
from fast food’s threatens. Also slow
food movement encouraged events to promote indigenous food and culture. This
movement helped people to learn about local food and history as well. (Peter
Popham, Independent. (2009, Dec 10)Carlo
Petrini: the slow food gourmet who started revolution.
The concept of Conviviality could be referring as the heart of the slow food
movement. Conviviality means taking time with cooking and the process of
cooking dishes are so enjoyable and bring great pleasure. Fast food can never
bring that kind of satisfaction coming from slow food. Also when we share the
food with others, we can feel more together and it is also conviviality. Today,
Slow Food has over 150,000 members and is active in more than 150 countries,
and American wants more local and origin food. According to the Share America,
there are 200 chapters and over 12000 people are in the USA Slow Food group.
Also in NY which is the busiest and hectic city in the world has several slow
food events. I have found that there was a slow food 6th annual party in NYC.
It was very interesting because when we go to Manhattan, everyone is holding
coffee and sandwiches and walking so fast. This looks far away from slow food
and they are more familiar with fast food and want their food on their table as
soon as possible. However, this is getting changed and people want to be
relaxed and enjoy their food slowly.

            In NYC Cuomo, the
governor, planed New York Taste program to promote tourism, local foods and
beverages, and regional agriculture. Hundreds of people visit New York every
day and people would like to experience natural American food and this New York
taste will satisfy the tourists’ desire. It is because their purpose on the
program is to introduce the local and traditional taste and food to people (New
York State, Governor’s press office, retrieved from
Also Fresh Connect is encouraging local markets and harvests program and it
literally helps people to get fresh foods. People in New York has difficulties
to have fresh food because of limited market produces. However this program
solve this problem and there are more fresh connect market opened and we can
get them easier today. Also there is Farm to Institution in NYS
(FINYS) which helps farmers to maintain their business in New
York. They seek for the way to have them greater economic chances and strategy
to continue their farmland and local food business. FINYS finds private and
public institution to supply local food and it will raise the regional and
local food markets in New York. The last is Grow NYC program which has awesome offers.
This program provide tools to anyone who use them to improve City environment
so that they can keep the city environment healthy. One of the famous job they
have done is Union Square Market and they work to build more community garden
and introduce young people about the environment and recycling. This programs
are so close to Slow Food with similar purpose. Both provides healthy natural
food to people and raise local market industries which also contributes to
develop communities. In my thought, Food to Table is more open for people to
get local food and close to our lives. Slow food provide conviviality to people
by offering food but food to table offers people ingredients to create their
own dishes and it gives more opportunities to have conviviality to people.
Therefore both campaign cannot be omitted and they are so closely relative (Green
Market, About us. Retrieved from https://www.grownyc. org/ about).

            Food insecurity mean low
security of food which has reduced quality, variety, or desirability of diet.
Those insecurity food indicate multiple reduced food intake but high food
security indicate no food problem. Food bank is the non-profit organization
provide food to those who have difficulties to buy food. In America they
usually open it like warehouse and they distribute them directly to hungry
people. Like those people who receive help from food bank, there are area that
lack of food produce called food desert. It commonly happened in poor area that
has not enough groceries, farms, and healthy food producers. For those areas I
have found the ‘First Lady’s Let’s Move!’ which planned Healthy Food Financing
Initiative (HFFI). They are working for expanding the availability of
nutritious food to food deserts (American Nutrition Association, Mari
Gallagher. (2011). Retrieved from http://americannutritionassociation.o
rg/newsletter/usda-defines-food-deserts). Supplemental Food and Nutrition
Program is another program that support people who need economic assistance and
low income individuals. They will receive card designed as ATM
card and people can use it for getting benefits. Households are able to use SNAP benefits to purchase foods such as breads
and cereals, fruits and vegetables, meats, fish and poultry and dairy products.
As of January 2016, 45.4 million persons were participating
in SNAP and according to the data from Keeping Track Online, New York City has
1,832,667 individual and 1,004,188 households who participating SNAP. It did
not showed how many children participating SNAP in NYC but I have found that
282,847 children has support by City government. Like above programs, LaGuardia
has a single stop to provide free benefits for Supplemental Nutrition
Assistance Program. They have food pantry every day in room C-107, they also
offer students health care program. Those are free to students and I have
visited there to receive vaccine one time. They did not paid and so friendly to
everyone and have a very nice service.

I was not really interested where the food came from
and how did it made and who grew the ingredients. Most people only recognize
how much calories this food contains and how much sugar and fat does this food
have. However, this is not only the factors that we should have considered. The
origins and the type of plants seed are very affective to our health and environment.
I have never given attention to what is GMO and just eat whatever they are
because organic food is more expensive. Through this research, I have found
that money is not going to the wrong place if you purchase organic food. They
put more time and effort to grow organic and heirloom plants and it is not easy
to harvest them in regulation from certificated agencies. As I look for
Smithfield Company, they grow animals in much specified condition of hog
housing and operate the system followed by policy of USDA and FDA. I believe
this is why they could achieve their goals and developed incredibly. This
research was worth and taught me a lot of important knowledge about food.