Although theory looks at the interrelationships between organisms

Although Beccaria focused on the classical theory of crime he was more
focused on the reform of criminal law and the punishment inflicted on the
offender rather than analyzing crime and the behavior of criminals. Geographic,
statistical, and cartographic schools of criminology all fall under the
ecological school of criminology. Developed by another Cesare, Cesare Lombroso,
ecological theory looks at the interrelationships between organisms and their
environment (Hagen, 2017). Human organisms and the environment in which they
live refers to the interrelationship between humans and ecology. It was the
first time that statistics were applied to explain criminology. Beccaria used a
theoretical and philosophical approach to criminology whereas the ecological
approach was more scientific. Andre Guerry also considered the first
statistician, used the use of statistics. He claimed that people commit crimes
based on their environment and their geographical housing. The school; of
ecology deals with the biological factors of criminal behavior. The ecological
school was labeled the statistical because it sought to apply data and
statistics when finding the causes of criminality. At the end of the eighteenth
century, classical criminology came from enlightenment ideals. The classical theory stated that men
have free will and are rational in their choices to commit crime. If they took
a physical approach they believed that genetics played a role in criminal
behavior and this resulted from a defect that could be measured. In this sense
environmental problems such as toxic waste might contribute to hereditary
problems of the brain. Exposure to such substances could cause nerve or brain
damage and be a contributing factor for committing crime. Taking these theories
into consideration it is believed that abnormalities which may be inherited
make people who are not criminal and people who are criminals physiologically
different from one another. Biological theorists consider the individual
defendant when handing out punishment and uses this consideration when deciding
how harsh punishment should be. “The major change from the Classical theories
to the biological theories is the emphasis on reformation rather than
punishment” (Lawteacher, 2017).

     Several similarities and differences separate
the ecological/biological theories of criminology. Crime, due to biological
defects is the biological theory as to why a person commits a crime. This
theory suggest that a person did not make a rational decision to commit a crime;
it was because of physical abnormalities. In contrast, according to the
classical theory a person has free will when deciding to commit a crime and not
because of their biological make-up. The classical theory puts full
responsibility on the offender. Environmental factors play a big role in a person’s
criminal behavior. The neighborhoods they live in. Whether they are working or
unemployed and living in less than prime areas. All these factors come in to
play with the ecological theory whereas the classical view thinks that when it
comes to solving crime, all concentration should be directed at the crime
itself. The same punishment is given to everyone who commits the same crime not
taking into consideration the individuals circumstances. It does not factor in
the offenders past record or in the case of self-defense. With the concentration
solely on the criminal act, individual differences between the individuals was
ignored. With this school of thought, retarded people, children, women, and
first time offenders were all given the same punishment without looking at the
individual circumstances. They were all considered rational and competent under
the law.

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     Under the ecological viewpoint, a
neighborhood is similar to an ecosystem. When an ecosystem experiences changes too
fast for the environment to keep up it becomes out of balance and
dysfunctional. The people inside of it become dysfunctional and neighborhoods
start to feel the impact. Social scientists are hard pressed to explain why individuals.
Normal in every aspect, living in less than satisfactory social environments,
change from their normal behavior and commit crimes. Recent research with
developments in both evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology give promise
as to why crime and deviance occur naturally in areas where individuals
interact without adding genetic influences. The classical theory would not take
into consideration these environmental changes and the impact it had on people
who commit crime. Everyone would be punished the same no matter the
circumstances (Criminology, 2017).

      Classical
criminology still has relevance in modern day society. Classical thought had a
substantial impact such as punishments fitting the crime in modern day society.
This helped form a foundation for ideas within the criminal justice system. We
see parts of the classical principles such as deterrence that are still
introduced in our systems today. With programs and government policies focusing
on getting tougher on crime, this is a direct result of the classical school of
criminology. There are exceptions such as crimes of passion, where people do
not consider the consequences at all and in these circumstances, there is no
deterrent. Classical ideology is still being used in modern day criminology but
the original principles have been modified some because the thought of a
rational criminal in the 21st century is unheard of (Different Theories
on Crime, 2017).

 

 Although Beccaria focused on the classical theory of crime he was more
focused on the reform of criminal law and the punishment inflicted on the
offender rather than analyzing crime and the behavior of criminals. Geographic,
statistical, and cartographic schools of criminology all fall under the
ecological school of criminology. Developed by another Cesare, Cesare Lombroso,
ecological theory looks at the interrelationships between organisms and their
environment (Hagen, 2017). Human organisms and the environment in which they
live refers to the interrelationship between humans and ecology. It was the
first time that statistics were applied to explain criminology. Beccaria used a
theoretical and philosophical approach to criminology whereas the ecological
approach was more scientific. Andre Guerry also considered the first
statistician, used the use of statistics. He claimed that people commit crimes
based on their environment and their geographical housing. The school; of
ecology deals with the biological factors of criminal behavior. The ecological
school was labeled the statistical because it sought to apply data and
statistics when finding the causes of criminality. At the end of the eighteenth
century, classical criminology came from enlightenment ideals. The classical theory stated that men
have free will and are rational in their choices to commit crime. If they took
a physical approach they believed that genetics played a role in criminal
behavior and this resulted from a defect that could be measured. In this sense
environmental problems such as toxic waste might contribute to hereditary
problems of the brain. Exposure to such substances could cause nerve or brain
damage and be a contributing factor for committing crime. Taking these theories
into consideration it is believed that abnormalities which may be inherited
make people who are not criminal and people who are criminals physiologically
different from one another. Biological theorists consider the individual
defendant when handing out punishment and uses this consideration when deciding
how harsh punishment should be. “The major change from the Classical theories
to the biological theories is the emphasis on reformation rather than
punishment” (Lawteacher, 2017).

     Several similarities and differences separate
the ecological/biological theories of criminology. Crime, due to biological
defects is the biological theory as to why a person commits a crime. This
theory suggest that a person did not make a rational decision to commit a crime;
it was because of physical abnormalities. In contrast, according to the
classical theory a person has free will when deciding to commit a crime and not
because of their biological make-up. The classical theory puts full
responsibility on the offender. Environmental factors play a big role in a person’s
criminal behavior. The neighborhoods they live in. Whether they are working or
unemployed and living in less than prime areas. All these factors come in to
play with the ecological theory whereas the classical view thinks that when it
comes to solving crime, all concentration should be directed at the crime
itself. The same punishment is given to everyone who commits the same crime not
taking into consideration the individuals circumstances. It does not factor in
the offenders past record or in the case of self-defense. With the concentration
solely on the criminal act, individual differences between the individuals was
ignored. With this school of thought, retarded people, children, women, and
first time offenders were all given the same punishment without looking at the
individual circumstances. They were all considered rational and competent under
the law.

     Under the ecological viewpoint, a
neighborhood is similar to an ecosystem. When an ecosystem experiences changes too
fast for the environment to keep up it becomes out of balance and
dysfunctional. The people inside of it become dysfunctional and neighborhoods
start to feel the impact. Social scientists are hard pressed to explain why individuals.
Normal in every aspect, living in less than satisfactory social environments,
change from their normal behavior and commit crimes. Recent research with
developments in both evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology give promise
as to why crime and deviance occur naturally in areas where individuals
interact without adding genetic influences. The classical theory would not take
into consideration these environmental changes and the impact it had on people
who commit crime. Everyone would be punished the same no matter the
circumstances (Criminology, 2017).

      Classical
criminology still has relevance in modern day society. Classical thought had a
substantial impact such as punishments fitting the crime in modern day society.
This helped form a foundation for ideas within the criminal justice system. We
see parts of the classical principles such as deterrence that are still
introduced in our systems today. With programs and government policies focusing
on getting tougher on crime, this is a direct result of the classical school of
criminology. There are exceptions such as crimes of passion, where people do
not consider the consequences at all and in these circumstances, there is no
deterrent. Classical ideology is still being used in modern day criminology but
the original principles have been modified some because the thought of a
rational criminal in the 21st century is unheard of (Different Theories
on Crime, 2017).