An emotional content. A fear appeal in advertising

An
appeal is the reason to which an advertisement is directed and the purpose is
to move the audience toward a goal set by the advertiser. However, the use of fear appeals in advertising is not
well accepted and can give bad views, unexpected results or have unintended
negative effects on people. Moreover, types of marketing communications
such as the marketing of products, services and social causes. Mostly, fear
appeals commonly used in these type of marketing communications. That is,
advertisers invoke fear by identifying the negative results of not using the
product or the negative results of engaging in unsafe behaviour.  However, fear appeals are effective in
increasing ad interest, involvement, recall, and persuasiveness.  Fear appeals are one of the most frequently
used motivators to get people to help themselves.  In fact, fear appeals have grown in popularity
because advertisers have found them to increase ad interest and persuasiveness.
Evidence also suggests that individuals “better remember and more frequently
recall ads that portray fear than they do warm or upbeat ads or ads with no
emotional content. A fear appeal in advertising is a message that is designed
to scare the intended audience by describing a serious threat to them. The
advertising tactic is to motivate the intended audience to engage or not engage
in certain behaviour based upon a fear.

            Advertising appeal assign to the
approach used to attract the attention of audience and to influence their
feelings and actions toward the advertisement. Advertising agency put a lot of
efforts into their creative advertising strategies. The objective of an
advertisement is to grab attention and advertising appeals intent to provide
just the right hook. Advertising appeals are designed to create the positive
image about those who use the product and additionally demonstrate how buying
certain products may help consumers satisfy their needs. Advertising appeal and
use various types of appeal to influence consumers attitude and purchasing
decisions. Advertisements with emotional appeals attempt to evoke certain emotions
such as safety, love, happiness, trust, fear, humour, loyalty, pride, pleasure,
romance, and more. Fear appeals focus on the negative results that can happen
because of an action or inaction of individual.

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            Fear appeals are frequently used for
products and even for awareness campaign. Advertisers use fear appeals to
promote an immediate behaviour change, such as eating healthier, stop and not smoking
and drive safely. For example, we see an ad planned by BMW to increase
consciousness for the negative possible consequences of driving after alcohol
consumption through creating fear, by showing the impact what will happen if
you practise that behaviour. Another fear tactic involves isolation. Fear
appeals work when the recommended action is compelling and sensible. For
example, ads targeting smokers can be ineffective if the person does not
believe quitting is within his or her reach.  For instance, advertisements focusing on
smokers can be insufficient if the individual does not think stopping is inside
his or her compass. Furthermore, fear appeals increase interest and are
remembered more and the use of moderate level of fear is usually the most
effective tactic.

            Many explanations have been proposed
related to fear appeal, including the fear as acquired drive model, parallel
process model, and protection motivation theory. However, the extended parallel
process model (EPPM) theory takes the best of some of the other theories,
extends the research, and helps in explaining the effectiveness of an appeal to
fear. The extended parallel process model (EPPM) is a structure developed by
Kim Witte which is effort to conclude how individuals will behave when meeting
with fear causing stimuli. It is commonly used in health communication
campaigns when a message is trying to convince audience members to adopt a
healthy behaviour. In order for fear appeal based campaigns to be effective,
advertiser must generate a moderately high level of fear and a higher level of self
efficacy and followed up with response efficacy. The message is useless when
the audience feels that there is a higher level of fear than efficacy.

            EPPM is concerned with how perceived
threats and perceived efficacy can cause behaviour change based upon fear. As
stated by the theory, a perceived threat consists of perceived likelihood of
being harmed or influenced, which is your perception of the chance of the
threat actually happening, and perceived severity, which is your perception of
the seriousness of the threat. Perceived efficacy consists of response efficacy,
which is how you perceived the safety and effectiveness of the recommended
response to the threat, and self-efficacy, which is how easy or simply you
believe you can engage in the recommended course of action. Basically, the
theory disagree that the perceived threat determines the desire to act, and the
perceived efficacy determines in what way you will act. As mentioned by the
theory, appeal to fear will only be effective if there is a strong perceived
threat and a strong efficacy component.