Thrombosis has three main causes
such as hypercoagulability, damage to endothelial cells of the blood vessel
wall, and abnormal flow of the blood 17.
Hypercoagulability, refers to higher levels of coagulation factors in the blood
that increase susceptibility to thrombosis 17.
This is usually as a result of genetics or disorders of the immune system. The
disease causes damages to the epithelial cells on the wall of blood vessels
after infection or surgery and trauma 17.
Irregular blood flow, such as venous stasis following heart failure or long
periods of being stationary behavior can lead to thrombosis 17. Also, other complication health problems can affect blood
flow and lead to the formation of thrombus, including fibrillation and cancer.
The treatments to thrombosis is through
to use of various activities, injections, and surgery. The major risk to
thrombosis is remaining stationary for long periods of time 18. In other words, patients are urged heavily to do exercising
activities or at least do regularly movements. These activities can be shut
down when patients are in a plane or are forced to remain in stationary positions.
A solution to their situations are that of a plane one can get up at times and
walk time to time to prevent blood clots. Individuals that are at high risk of
venous thromboembolism, heparin can be administered to reduce risk of pulmonary
embolism 18. Although, the use of heparin does heighten
the chances of bleeding due to the reduced efficacy of clotting factors 18. Essentially, heparin is primarily used in treatment than
prevention. In deep vein thrombosis there are some preventable measures with
little to no side effects such as the use of compression stockings 18. The use of these mechanical supporters in the veins
inhibit the formation of blood clots 18.
The use of anticoagulants may possibly increase the risk of major bleeding
slightly, but they are found to offer both benefiting factors in the prevention
and treatment of thrombosis 18.
The Use of Oncostatin
M in Medicine:
Several new studies identify Oncostatin M (OSM) as a potential
biomarker and therapeutic target for anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF),
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and many others that use OSM to mediate inflammation
15. There are no medications that are derived from OSM. However, there are treatments
that are designed in the use of OSM for therapeutic means. Roughly 40% of
patients who don’t respond to anti-TNF therapy, which is the only treatment
option available 15. Studies have revealed that patients with IBD have higher
concentrations of OSM, which is a protein that is linked to inflammation and suggest
that blocking OSM could prove to be a treatment for IBD 15. IBD are chronic
painful diseases that includes conditions such as Crohn’s disease, and at least
5 million people worldwide are affected by it 15. Individuals that do have inflammatory
issues do not necessarily have to choose anti-TNF therapy because of it being
expensive, but they can choose to use a measure test of OSM to help target therapeutic
means for their benefit 15. It is worth mentioning that OSM is involved with
a wide range of processes in order to regulate and stabilize homeostasis, differentiation,
cell proliferation, and many others. Unfortunately, due to the overabundance of
production correlates to several diseases such as cancer and many others. Further
studies are required in order to fully use OSM as a medicated response to a multitude