Evolving May 2008. The monarchy’s downfall began in

Evolving from a hindi principled monarchy to a federal parliamentary republic with the push of the Maoist Revolution, Nepal, although still one of the most impoverished countries in the world, is progressing to a hopeful future with a sustainable economy and solid government.Before Nepal was even Nepal, the native Newar people are the original people to occupy that area. Today the Newar people only make up about 0.6% of Nepal’s overall population but about half the population of Kathmandu Valley. The rise of the Licchavi dynasty in the 4th century C.E was probably the 1st indian originated ruling family in that area of plains which set a precedent and became customary. The Malla Era lasted from the 10th century to the 18th century in which Kathmandu Valley was under the rule of Malla dynasty. Malla ruler Jaya Sthiti introduced a legal and social code based by contemporary hindu principles. They were overthrown by the Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah in 1769. The principality of Gurkha unified numerous of other principalities and states of the Sub-Himalayan region into a Nepalese Kingdom during the late 18th century and the early 19th century. Nepal was finally able to retain freedom after the Anglo-Nepalese war of 1814-16.Nepal’s 240 year old Hindu Monarchy finally ended in May 2008. The monarchy’s downfall began in June 2001 when king Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and most of the royal family were shot and killed. His son, crowned prince Dhirendra was suspected of the murder of his family and was found dead by suicide. Birendra’s brother, Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev took the throne. He was an unpopular figure and prompted mass and violent protest, the biggest and most violent group being the Maoist rebels. Protest led to November 2006 arrangement between the government and Maoist rebels to abolish monarchy.After the Maoist revolution and the agreement made with the government, Nepal adopted a new form of government with new leaders. Nepal is now recognized as a federal parliamentary republic which means it has a republican form of government with the federation of states that are dependent on parliament at national and divisional levels. The executive branch includes Chief of State, president Bidhya Devi Bhandari and Head of Government, prime minister Sher Bahadur Deuba. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament for a 5 year term- eligible for a second term- unlike the prime minister who is indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament. A major branch of Nepal’s government that contributes to its success is the judicial branch. This branch serves the job of enforcing laws, settling disagreements, and trying those who are in question of committing a crime. The judicial branch include district courts, Court of Appeal, and the High Court. The Supreme Court is the highest court with up to 20 judges and a Supreme Court Chief Justice. The Supreme Court Chief Justice, who is in charge, is appointed by the president by the recommendation of the Constitutional Council and serves a 6 year term. Other judges are appointed by the president with the recommendation of the Judicial Council and serve up to age 65. The Judicial Council is an advisory board made up of 5 members and headed by the Supreme Court Chief Justice.The legislative branch is a bicameral federal parliament consist of the National Assembly and the House of Representatives. The National Assembly has a total of 59 members- 56 members indirectly elected by the electoral college of state and municipal government leaders and 3 members nominated by the president of Nepal- and the House of Representatives have a total of 275.  165 of the members in the House are directly elected in single seat constituencies by majority vote, 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote.Political parties were a critical role in nepal’s history andare still just as vital now. They closer represent the people and what they want because they are the people. Nepali Congress Party (NCP) instigated the campaign of civil disobedience leading to the political reform of 1990. Prime Minister Deuba formed Nepali Congress Democratic (NCD) and the two parties merged in 2007. The leading force in the abolition of nepalese monarchy was the very influential Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The party was founded in 1994 by Pushpa Kamal Dahal, who was infamously known as Prachanda. He was a former prime minister of Nepal and was not well liked by many. Prachanda was replaced as prime minister in 2009 by Madhav Kumar, head of the Communist Party of Nepal–Unified Marxist-Leninist (UML). All political parties’ purposes are to represent the wants and necessities of their constituents.Citizens of Nepal expect to not only be represented, but also protected. Nepal is defended by a total of 158,600 active forces as of 2012. Branches include the Nepalese Armed Forces which is predominantly an infantry force and the Army Flight Department which operates aircrafts. The Nepalese Armed Forces was originally the Royal Nepalese Army before it was renamed after its transition away from monarchy. Joining Nepal’s military is a voluntary action for any citizen 18 years of age or older. Other than its national protection, Nepal also has a police force that protect and serve within one of the 14 zones that Nepal is divided into.Many countries pride themselves on nationalism and Nepal could be one of them considering how much citizens go out of their way to serve their country. Nepal’s nationalism shows even in the smallest of details like its country’s flag. Nepal’s flag is red with a blue border and has the unique shape of two conjoined triangle. Nepal is the only country whose flag is not rectangular or square. The red on the flag represents the rhododendron blossom, which is also the country’s national symbol,and is a sign of victory and bravery. The blue border signifies the peace and harmony that surrounds the country. The two conjoined triangles originally represented the Himalayan Mountains but is now denotes Hinduism and Buddhism which is the major religions of Nepal. Within each of the two triangles is a symbol, each with a significant meaning. The upper triangle has a moon symbol which embodies serenity of the nepalese people and the cool weather of the Himalayan Mountains while the sun in the lower triangle depicts the heat and high temperatures of Nepal. The two symbols also represents the country’s desire to live as long as the sun and the moon.