Form types of building do not have an


Ziggurats were
considered to be the resting place of gods, they featured large sheer faces
with staircases running up the side, this often formed part of a temple
complex. Ziggurats were positioned in the centre of town and were the tallest
buildings, this allowed them to be seen from the surrounding area. Ziggurats
featured wide bases with smaller rectangular layers sat on top, this allowed
there to be an area on the roof to carry out religious ceremonies, however only
religious figures such as priests could access this space (, n.d.). The Stupa is
a religious monument which was believed to contain a small amount of the Buddha,
small stupas made of precious stone were often held underneath the main
structure. The Stupa is also a monument which holds religious relics, however
it does not have an accessible internal space. They have a hemispherical form
which is supported by a circular base. There are gateways (Toranas) at either
end of the Stupa, once you have entered you are enclosed by a railing (Vedika)
which circles the space, there are also staircases (Sopananas)
inside the perimeter which allow You to walk closer
to the dome (Anda), on the top of the dome there is a Crown (Parasal). Anyone
is allowed to access this space, unlike the Ziggurats. The main difference in
form between the two buildings is that the Stupa is circular and features a
high amount of detailed carvings on the crown and entrance, whilst the Ziggurat
either has a rectangular or square form, and has a lot less detail.



were constructed from Bricks created of mud and bitumen, the bitumen made the
bricks much harder and more durable, furthermore it acted as a waterproofing
glue when connecting the bricks together. To strengthen the bricks grass and
straw was added to help maintain its form. The Stupa was created from burnt
clay Bricks laid with mortar, features such as the Crown, gateways and detailed
sections were made from sculpted stone (,
n.d.). Although both designs use bricks the Stupa
has a higher level of finish with the bricks being a lot smoother and more
aesthetically pleasing compared to the ziggurat.



Both types
of building do not have an internal area, however they are a place to meditate and
carry out religious ceremonies, whilst also acting as a focal point for their
respected religions.Ancient
EgyptianIn the 13th
century BC a temple called Abu Simbel was constructed. Abu Simbel was located in
Nubia on the bank of Lake Nasser, however in 1964-68 the Aswan High damn was
constructed, this meant that the temple needed to be relocated to higher ground
above the Aswan reservoir (,
2018). The large temple was a place to worship the
gods Ra, Amun, and Ptah, whilst the small temple was dedicated to Ramesses
wife and the goddess Hathor (, 2018). Although the temple was dedicated to these gods, there
were carvings which represented the Battle of Kadesh and Ramesses himself
spread across the walls, this shows that the temple is also a statement of Ramesses
power and greatness (,
2018). Abu Simbel was designed to allow sunrays to
enter the deepest shrine on the 22nd of October and February each
year, this was achieved by building the temple along the suns axis, thus
allowing the sunrays to strike the statues which were positioned on the wall. There
were 4 statues, Ra, Amun, Ramesses and Ptah on the wall, however Ptah was positioned
to stay in dark as he was the god of the underworld (Atlas Obscura, n.d.).   MayaEl Castillo
was a temple which worshipped the god Kukulcan, it was created by the Maya
people in 1000 ad. The temple is located in Yucatan Mexico which was the central
point in the Chichen Itza, a large city built by the Maya People (, 2017). El Castillo acts as a large Maya calendar, the pyramid consists
of 9 levels which are cut in half by a staircase running up the centre of each
face, this creates 18 terraces, which has a connection to the 18 months on the
Maya calendar. Furthermore, if you add the 91 steps from each staircase plus
the top platform you get 365 which are the amount of days in one year, there
are also 52 panels on each side of the pyramid, these represent the 52 years in
the Maya calendar round (Planet, n.d.). The purpose of this is to help the Maya people determine
when to plant and harvest crops. The El Castillo temple links to light as
during the Spring and Autumn equinoxes the layered terraces from the north-western
face casts shadows down the stairs of the temple, this creates the appearance of a snake. The
setting of the sun gives the shadows life, thus making the snake appear to move
down the stairs (,
2017). Pantheon

The Pantheon
in Rome is another building which manipulates light, on the 21st of April natural
light is allowed to enter through a grill, the courtyard is then engulfed in natural
light which would not normally enter the space, this is to commemorate the founding
date of the city (,
2013).FormThe Parthenon in Athens was constructed in
the style of the Ancient Greek Doric order, whilst the Temple of Apollo in
Didyma was constructed in the Ionic order. This differentiation was due to
location and time period, for example the Parthenon was constructed in mainland
Greece between 447-438BC whilst the Temple of Apollo was constructed in 300BC
in Asia minor. This has caused both temples to show differences in style and
form. The Parthenon shows Doric properties, for example the columns are thick
and short and little decoration or detail is displayed on the capital. Due to
the Temple of Apollo showing Ionic properties, the columns are much thinner, they
have volutes (spiral scroll on the capital) and the quantity of columns is much
greater. The Columns on the Parthenon also sit straight onto the platform of
the temple, this is due to the thickness and height of the columns, however due
to the Temple of Apollo having slender tall columns they need to sit on a
rectangular base section.  Location/SiteThere is also a variation in the foundations
and location of the temples, The Parthenon was designed to be seen and admired
form a distance, therefore it is located on high ground, on the other hand the
Temple of Apollo is located on flat ground, this means that a higher base is
needed to give the same sense of magnitude.  Layout

Due to the
Parthenon being a Doric temple it features a rectangular floor plan with a
series of steps surrounding the outer perimeter, columns are then located around
the periphery of the space. The columns are used to support the roof of the
structure, 6 Columns are also positioned at the entrance of the temple. The
interior consists of 2 central rooms, the larger room is used as an inner sanctuary
whilst the smaller room acts as a treasury (,
n.d.). The Apollo temple has more steps to climb
before reaching the temple, 7 in total, compared to the Parthenon’s 3 (, 2018). The
Apollo temple also has more columns spread down the perimeter of the space and
double the number of rows running down the side of the temple. The inside of
the Apollo temple does not have a roof, instead there is a large open sanctuary
that is accessed by two passages which descend into the dark, this opens into
the sun lit inner sanctuary (,
n.d.). This shows that although both temples are used as a religious monument the
use of space is different, this is due to the Parthenon offering an internal
area for religious activities whilst the temple of Apollo offers an external