Fungal Jammu & Kashmir (Figures 1­­­­–3). The infested

 Fungal control
against bark beetles

Studies
on use of entomopathogenic fungi against bark beetles was followed as per the
earlier standard methods adopted by Batta (2007) and Jakus and Blanzee (2011)

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Pinus wallichiana branches used in the experiments

Naturally
infested branches of P. wallichiana were collected during
2017(April to November
2017)   from a severely infested pine stand located in
Nowpora village (33°61.078′ N, 075°18.700′ E, elevation
5920 ft.) in Anantnag District, Jammu & Kashmir (Figure 1) and forest check
point, Tangmarg (340 03.797′ N, 074024.948′ E, Elevation 7552 feet) in Baramulla
District, Jammu & Kashmir (Figures 1­­­­–3).  The infested branches were selected after
observing bark beetle infestations (Figure 4–5). The sample branches were transported
to the Animal House, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir in plastic
boxes for the evaluation of fungal
treatments against I. stebbingi.

Fungal species used in the treatment  

The
commercial bioprepration of three entomopathogenic fungi viz.,
B. bassiana, M. anisopliae
and L. lecanii
were obtained from Green
Life Biotech Laboratory, Somanur, Coimbatore, India. Experiment was performed
from April to November 2017. A total of 90 branches naturally infested with bark beetles, categorized into five groups (G1–G5),
were used in the experiment for each bark beetle species. Each replicate
represented three infested branches and six replicates per experimental
treatment were used for each bark beetle species (Table 1). The
used insecticide was cyclone (active ingredient: Chlorpyriphos 50% +
Cypermethrin 5%).   

The
fungal preparation was diluted in water: 1ml biopreparation/1000 ml water with
four drops of a common detergent as a wetting agent. Each fungal suspension
contained 1.0 × 109 spores of fungi in 1 ml. The fungal suspensions
were applied with a hand sprayer at 500 ml per log (Table 1). High volumes of
fungal suspensions were used for effective treatment so that suspensions would
penetrate spontaneously after application. After 10 days nine branches from
three treated replicates in each group were carefully debarked and the
percentage mortality of each bark
beetle species
were calculated and compared (Table 1). The same procedure
was applied for calculating percentage mortality of each bark beetle species after 20 days of
treatment.  

Fungal treatment of bark beetle adults (Petri plate assay)  

In
this method a total of 15 petri dishes containing filter papers were used;
three replicates were maintained for each treatment. The treatments were
performed by applying two rapid jetting sprays standardized at 1.0 ml per
replicate using a small calibrated hand sprayer (1 liter capacity) equipped
with a nozzle suited to low-volume spray application (Batta, 2007). In each
petri dish 40 adults of each bark
beetle species
were introduced before spraying. The same spray volumes (1
ml per replicate) were applied in the other treatments (Table 2). The mortality
percentage from each treated group was evaluated after 2, 4 and 6 days after
treatment. This mortality was shown either by the lack of movement of treated
adults within five minute period of continuous observation or by the appearance
of mycelial growth on the bodies of dead adults. The beetles were then
incubated in petri dishes under humid conditions for one week to promote
mycelial growth with the conidia and the conidiophores on their bodies.

Photography