In of the crashes, even though 19 percent

In
Figure 2, motorcyclists has the highest frequency of not reporting the
accidents followed by the car drivers. But in past study by Jonathan 33, the
reporting rates were higher for drivers than for passengers. Crash statistics on bicycles suffer from
significant underreporting compared to other types of road users, as they are
often not documented by the police. This omission is most common when a motor-vehicle
is not involved, such as when a cyclist hits a fixed object or falls, on or off
the road 34. Even when a
motor-vehicle is involved, many of the collisions are not documented in police
records. In a prospective study that tracked the cycling behavior and crashes
of 1087 adult commuter riders in Brussels, Belgium over a period of one year,
the police documented only 7 percent of the crashes, even though 19 percent
involved a collision with a car 35. And even in a city where bicycling is
more common than driving (Munster, Germany), hospital admission records contain
twice as many injury bicycle crashes as the police records 36. The accidents
were reported if there is a risk of injury. If injury occurred, the accidents
were reported (64.3%) and if injury did not occur, the accidents tend to not be
reported (57%). Based on Periyasamy et al 22, non-fatal injuries were underreported
most likely due to a poor understanding of the importance of reporting by the
injured road users. People were reluctant to report injuries to the police to
avoid the consequences for the crash if they were at fault. Roundabout has the
highest number of unreported accidents while at the highway, the number of
reported accidents is highest. Based on study by Patil 37, divided highways
decrease the chance of occurrence of high severity crashes but there is still
accidents happened and were reported but not as much as accidents occurred on
road junctions. For the death case, it is recorded that there were only 14
accidents that cause death in this study in which 5 deaths for unreported
accidents and 9 deaths for reported accidents. For the unreported accidents,
probably the death happened more than 30 days after accidents. Providing improved protection to vehicle occupants who are
involved in side-impact collisions has become a high priority of both government,
industry and academic researchers in the past decade. One aspect of the
side-impact problem concerns side-impacts with fixed roadside obstacles such as
trees, utility poles, and guard rails. Some of these objects, like trees, occur
naturally by the roadside. Other objects, like utility poles, are placed along
the roadside though they do not contribute to the roadway function. Still other
objects like luminaire supports, guard rails and signs, are placed along side
the roadway to serve a specific purpose related to the roadway function.
Objects that are placed along the roadside must be evaluated in full-scale
vehicle crash tests to determine how effectively the object minimizes the
hazards to vehicle occupants who may strike the object 38. No presence of
objects tends to make the drivers did not report any accidents. Based on
Holdridge 39, poles (including light poles, trees, utility, traffic,
railway, and overhead sign poles) experienced a significant number of crashes
(11.7%). Reported accidents tend to be hospitalized. If no hospitalization, no
accidents were reported. Traffic accidents have produced hospitalizations with
high costs 40. Therefore, people tend not to report the accidents as no
hospitalization occurred.