Introduction the composition of this design you can

Introduction

“A house is a machine for
living in”15.  These are the words of an influential architect.

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Le Corbusier was an architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer and
known as one of the pioneers of modern architecture, he is also part of the first
generation of architects who were part of
the International school of architecture, being their most able architect and because
of his persuasive nature he became one the most influential architects. Corbusier designs mainly where focused on the combination functionalism of the modern movement with a bold, sculptural
expressionism. 1

 

This essay will look into the argument of Le Corbusier’s,
that architects of the time should take more references from
engineering and the factories of the industrial era. I will also talk about the
detail and the emphases Le Corbusier goes into to display
the importance of the use of simple geometric forms and relying on
calculations to design buildings, with this I will look at his use of language and
the way he writes to show this aspect. I will also look at the way he justifies
this subjects through his drawings pictures and other forms of design.

 

Geometric forms
and simple Compositions

The argument that Le Corbusier raises is that primary forms
are beautiful because they can be clearly appreciated.

This is shown in the first part of the authors writing

“primary forms are beautiful forms because they are
clearly legible”2

this is an example of le Corbusier’s main argument that
architects of his time should design more simply as it is clearer.  He says the quote

Figure 1 this is Villa La Roche-Jeanerette

this is also supported by the book written by Le
Corbusier Towards a New Architecture this is a copy of 1927 version which is
the original edition of the translated version, this book states a similar
point “Primary forms are

beautiful
forms because they can be clearly appreciated”
3.

This quote clearly indicates the
argument Le Corbusier is raising, that if architecture is approached with a
simple composition it is easier to understand. This also shows his thoughts
behind how he wants to approach his designs at this point in his career, this
is reflected in the design of a building such as The Villa La
Roche-Jeanerette (Figure 1) The designed in
1923, now when looking at the composition of this design you can see that the
simple forms are recurrent, infect the whole design is composed of geometric forms
such as the very cuboid like façade.

 

 

 

Designs like Villa Savoy completed in 1931(Figure 2) was very much designed with the same style so this ideal
came up in many parts of his work so you can tell, he wants to turn that sense
of geometric forms into a trend showing again trying to be very influential.

 

Figure 2 Villa Savoy

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Corbusier ,Adolf Meyer and Walter Gropius
all  studied under  

Figure 3 The Fagus Factory

Peter Behrens and he is alsoo the architect who influenced them with the idea of eginering
 forms. Knowig this when looking at the
Fagus Factory (Figure 3) designed by Adolf
Meyer and Walter Groupius when looking its features, you can really tell that
the building was designed with allot of geometrical features.  Mainly Walter Groupies who very similar
ideals well known for the founder of the German art school known as Bauhaus when looking at the school work in general you can tell that it
has this simple and primary forms are used very frequently (figure
4). He also had similar
ideals about engineers he liked to educate the artists about the difference
between architecture and engineering Walter grouses famous quotes was “Architecture begins where engineering ends.”13
What he means with this quote is Architecture is there to make the
buildings look beautiful, this can only start when the engineering aspect starts,
this is  when you  make sure the building is  standing , ends, the idea of objects being
aesthetically pleasing, can only start after they have been machine made.

 

 

 

Industrialism

Le Corbusier and the Bauhaus both where interested in mass
production and industrialism. Bauhaus revolutionised the design and production of modern furniture by the
use of steel as frames or supports for furniture and other appliances. The use
of machine made and mass-produced steel created simple forms that required
little handcrafting and it added to the streamlined, geometric modern look of
Bauhaus furniture. Where Le Corbusier spoke about mass production of housing
“a state of mind for living in mass
production”14 which shows that he wants to convey the idea of
the having houses building being mass produced.

Figure 4 Bauhaus

 

 

Le Corbusier use of writing as a tool to influence architecture

Le Corbusier’s ideas have always been about simplicity. In
the book, he uses the word “primitive” 4

a lot to show how complicated architecture has become. He even says this in his writing by claiming that “The architects of today no longer make
simple forms” 5the way he uses his language seems to berate
architects to showing them  what
architecture has become. Then he indirectly makes the audience
(architects) think about how they approach there designs by saying “architects today are afraid of the
geometric constituents of surfaces”6 similarly in the book it
says  “architects
today are afraid of the geometric constituents of surfaces”.7 This
makes the audience question themselves why are they afraid of using a geometric
components in their designs?, Then encourages the architects by giving them a
with positive aspect when using geometrical forms, saying that “The great problems of modern construction
will be soloed through geometry” 8 this will then encourage the
reader to consider using simple forms. These quotes all show his persuasive
nature by engaging the reader, he berets architects to think about the geometrical
compositions in their designs and then encourages them by a positive aspect if
they consider this style it’s almost a propaganda esc writing.

From this I can see the way he is writing
he was not only bringing his argument/idea across but at the same time he is
very persuasive in the way he uses his language. This persuasive nature makes
him like seem very obsessed with the simple and engineered architecture.  

 

Le Corbusier again uses the word “Primitive”9 in a historical context. He believes that
going backwards is the way forwards.  Before
certain tools where made Le Corbusier believed that man used measurements as a
way of understanding what they were making; using arms, feet and fingers as
units. An example of this is in the book when he
states “imposed
order by means of measurements. In order to get his measurements, he has taken
his pace, his foot, his elbow or his finger. By imposing the order of his foot
or his arm, he has created a unite which regulates the whole work; and this
work is on his own scale, to his own proportion, comfortable for him, to his
measure. It is on the human scale”10. This
quote is from the book which is an example of him embracing the fact that backwards
was the way forward. The most important part of this quote is “It is on the human scale” 11as
it really makes the reader think about the human scale and how this is how it’s
supposed to be.

 

Modular 

Le Corbusier busier was also interested in the humane
scale he made his own scale called the Modular (figure 5) The Modular is a geometrical grid based on the human form. This
indicates again that he wants to go backwards rather than forwards also showing
that he more cares about the
human interaction with the buildings hence he
created an entirely new scale that relates to humane scale. 

 

This shows that he uses the word “Primitive”
in two different contexts one in which he is used it historically and secondly
to emphasis the complexity of architecture in his time.

 

Figure 5 :geometrical grid of the modular

 

Le Corbusier’s interest in
Machines

From his writing, you can tell that he was
inspired by the machine age (this is the development of new
technology and industrial processes). In the book, he praised the beauty of the ship engines, the turbine
engine, the automobile and even the bridge construction. An example of this is
when he says, “The air plane is a product
of high selection”12. That shoes he likes All design of the
engineer, whose products had to reflect function and could not be filled up
with unessential decoration. He then talks about how the airplane teaches a
lesson about solving problems ” the lesson
of the air plane is in the logic that governed the statement of the problem and
its realization” 16showing again that he is telling other architects
to think like an engineer to see a problem and then fix it or to think about a
design logically  rather creatively  now engages the audience by stating that the ” problem of the house has not been
posed”17 meaning that architects
haven’t thought about the house as problem 
to be thought out properly rather than just designed . Then he explains thatch
because designs haven’t been thought about properly they don’t meet our needs
but people still live in them “current architectural things do not answer to
our needs “then saying “yet there are standards for living”18 showing
that he cares very much about functionalism and about humane ergonomics
referring back to the modular backs up the fact that he cares about living standards
as the measurements he uses whir all humane scale rather than any other scale.

It was also very interesting how he used the word “standards” saying it in argumentative way as if architects of his
time violated a certain standard of architecture as if there are certain rules
that architect have to follow to design a house that someone can dwell in. Le
Corbusier finally sums that inter paragraph whit one of the most famous saying
in the world of architecture “the house is a machine for living in”19
showing his inspiration from machines.   

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6

He again wants to change the way architects design, by attempting
to make architects think about setting a new standard of architecture through
certain rules that will inevitably to solve problems “we must see to the
establishment of standards  sow we can
face up to the problem of perfection”20 this shows his whey of
trying to set rules and regulations to start tackling the issues and the problems
thath occur when designing a building. He uses old archietecture as an example
to show that there where certain rules followed to or standerd that he belives
where used to create a building “the Parthenon
is a prouduct of selection applied to a stnaderd”21  he used this exampel  of the pathernon (figure 6) to show that you
can creat any kind of archtecture using certain reules or standerds aganin
refering back to the past showig how even in anciantanciant times  they used certain rules in this beuldings case
its ruls was that a space is cllassified by structer and  (pillers) and a roof .

 

When looking at the way he talks about engines or machines
where there it is  air planes or cars he
still the sense of interest and passion for functionalism the quote “A house is a machine for
living in” 22 really emphasises the
this aspect of functionalism as machines are only made for function.

                                                    

 

 

 

Conclusion

To conclude, it can be seen that he would use these
ideals to see the buildings as an object in which his eyes had to be satisfied
by what he had created. This is one of the main points of the entire argument whether
it’s in the book or in the writing. His persuasive language and the way he
indirectly makes the audience participate with his ideas and thoughts seems to
me like it is almost a propaganda to recruit architects to follow a modernism
and functionalism ideal.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1Le
Corbusier online. (2017). Available from: .

Accessed 25/10/2017.

2Argument online.

(2017). Available from: https://studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-3030654-dt-content-rid-5623596_1/courses/AD473_2017/Le
Corbusier.pdf. Accessed 21/10/2017

page
85

3 Le Corbusier translated from
French by (1927). Towards A New Architecture. translated from
French by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed. in England: The Architectural Press
London.

page
8

4 Le Corbusier translated from
French by (1927). Towards A New Architecture. translated from
French by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed. in England: The Architectural Press
London.

page
65,66…

5 Argument online.

(2017). Available from: https://studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-3030654-dt-content-rid-5623596_1/courses/AD473_2017/Le
Corbusier.pdf. Accessed 21/10/2017

page
85

6 Argument online.

studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-3030654-dt-content-rid-5623596_1/courses/AD473_2017/Le
Corbusier.pdf (2017). Available from:   Accessed 21/10/2017

page
86

7 Le Corbusier translated from
French by (1927). Towards A New Architecture. translated from
French by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed. in England: The Architectural Press
London.

page 8

8 Argument online.

(2017). Available from: https://studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-3030654-dt-content-rid-5623596_1/courses/AD473_2017/Le
Corbusier.pdf. Accessed 21/10/2017

page
86

9 Le Corbusier translated from
French by (1927). Towards A New Architecture. translated from French
by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed. in England: The Architectural Press London.

page
65,66

10 Le Corbusier translated from
French by (1927). Towards A New Architecture. translated from
French by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed. in England: The Architectural Press
London.

page
67,68

11Le Corbusier translated from
French by (1927). Towards A New Architecture. translated from
French by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed. in England: The Architectural Press
London.

page
68

12 Argument online.

(2017). Available from:
. Accessed 21/10/2017

page
87

13Walter Gropius online.

(2017). Available from: .

Accessed 11/12/2017

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21

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Argument online.

(2017). Available from: . Accessed 21/10/2017

 

 

Le Corbusier translated from French by (1927). Towards
A New Architecture. translated from French by Frederick Etch ells 1946. ed.

in England: The Architectural Press London.

 

Le Corbusier online.

(2017). Available from:
. Accessed
25/10/2017.

 

Le Corbusier/ ‘Towards a New Architecture’ online.

(2017). Available from:
.

Accessed 25/10/2017.

 

Le Corbusier (1900). The
Modulor. Second Edition Reprint 1961. ed. London: Faber.

 

 

 

Reference
for pictures

 

Figure 1 :arch
daily online. (2017). Available from: .

Accessed 21/10/2017.

Figure 2: Villa Savoye
online. (2017). Available from:
. Accessed 10/12/2017.

Figure 3: The Factory online. (2017).

Available from: .

Accessed 10/12/2017.

Figure 4:  Bauhaus online. (2017). Available from:
.

Accessed 10/12/2017.

Figure 5 : Architecture x Mathematics
online. (2017). Available from:
.

Accessed 10/12/2017

Figure 6 : Parthenon online. (2017).

Available from: . Accessed
10/12/2017.