Israel’s government is a parliamentary
republic. Each citizen has the right to vote for a representative in what they
call a Knesset. The elected parties of that time must come together and form a
coalition government to govern the people. The head of their government is the
Prime Minister, who is elected by the Knesset. The Knesset also has a president,
but the president in this political arena has little power and is mostly used
as a symbol or representative of their political process.
Israel’s economy is that of an
advanced free market economy. Their most profitable export are cut diamonds,
high-technology equipment and pharmaceuticals. Their main imports consist of
crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Trading their goods
and services for others leaves Israel in a trade deficit. This state makes up
for its deficit with tourism, foreign investments, and other service exports.
When looking at a microeconomic standpoint Israel has a large income gap and
high poverty rates. Government reform has been advocated for but has yet to actually
occur. Many citizens believe that there is a small number of individuals who
control and manipulate the government to ensure that this gap stays in place.
Israel’s society consists mostly of people who
identify as Jewish. 75% of the population is Jewish while the remained 25% is
Arab. The Arabic people a centered mostly is the West Bank, Gaza Strip and
Golan Heights. In 1950 the Law of Return was passed, this allowed anyone of
Jewish dissent to become a citizen of Israel. This law cause issue down the
road because thousands of Jewish decedents from places all across the Middle
East flocked to Israel. Many immigrants faced the hard reality of integrating
into a new society. African and Ethiopian decedents had the most trouble trying
to culturalize themselves within this new society. The highest number of
immigrants today come from France due to the fact that there is an increase in
terror attacks, economic downturn and Antisemitism.
Turkey’s went under its own control in
1922 when the first president was elected Mustafa Kemal also known as Atatürk “Father
of the Turks.” When he came into command he brought his Republican party with
him and reformed Turkey into a more modern and industrialized world. His government
consisted of a single party system that he established to ensure that his ideas
were enforced throughout Turkey. After Atatürk’s death the organization of
their government shifted to a multi-party democracy. In 1982 a constitution was
drafted that permanently set the Turkish government up to be democratic,
secular, and parliamentary. They have a president and prime minister that hold
executive power as well as a 550 member parliament called Grand National
Assembly. The members of the Assembly
and Prime Minister are elected every four years. Moving forward through history
Turkey’s government faced wars and military coups, some being successful and
others not so much. Today’s current leaders are President Abdullah Gül and
Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo?an.
Turkey’s economy is a free market
economy. In more recent years their leading areas have been industry and
service vectors, although agriculture still accounts for 25% of employment. They
important much needed and depended on oil and gas, however in recent years they
have been exploring more green alternatives to energy. The government that
currently resides in office focus on populist spending measures and credit
breaks. Unfortunately between 2016 and 2017 it was found that government
officials were abusing their powers of in the economic institutions to attack
other political opponents. Turkey’s overall economy has been on a decline since
2014. The production, growth rate, and tourism rate plummeted
along beside rising unemployment and raising
inflation. Turkey depends heavily on foreign investment to help them continue
to move forward, however the number of banks and corporations borrowing money
is of the rise which makes Turkey’s economic future uncertain.
Turkey’s population is around 79.4
million people, 70% of the population identifies as Turkish ethnicity, 18%
identify as part of the Kurdish community and the remaining 7-12% of people
identify as a smaller ethnic group. Health care is available for most of the
population and education is free for the ages between 6 and 18 resulting in 95%
of the population to be literate. Higher education is available but only for
those who have excelled in Undergraduate Placement Examination, which is a
national entrance exam. The population of Turkey has been at an unrest due to
the tension between the Kurds and the Turks. The Kurds refuse to assimilate the
Turkish customs, in the more recent years the conflict between the two groups
has intensified and turned violent.
Iran’s government is referred to as
Islamic Republican of Iran and was formed in 1979. This form of government was
established after the overthrow of theocracy that was governing the region
previously. This overthrow was led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini who was later
named the first Supreme Leader. The Supreme Leader in his case hold all of the executive
power. Supreme Leaders are selected by the Assembly of Experts and once selected
these individuals hold this position for life. The Supreme Leaders not only
hold the power but they are also the head or the leader of religious ideals.
The Assembly of Leaders, president, and Consultative Assembly are elected positions.
Political Parties in Iran are not a typical party. If parties are formed they
are done so before elections and then afterwards these parties seem to dissipate.
Iranians have two main political ideologies- conservative religious or
reform-minded. These two ideologies have had thickening tension is the recent
past causing protesting. In 1979 The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps was
established. This was a very powerful security and military organization that
was created to protect and defend the regime.
Iran’s economy is inefficient and
unstable. They rely heavily on oil imports but they also produce agriculture,
industries and service vectors. The government is a huge owner in many
enterprises along with companies that have to do with the country’s security.
Their private sectors consist mostly of medium scale construction and mining
and corruption is widespread. Iran faces unemployment as well as underemployment
because many educated people could not find jobs where they lived so they moved
to where they could find jobs causing a drop in educated workers. In 2013 a new
president was elected in hopes that there will be an economic turn around.
Iran’s population is vast and diverse.
Hey have nine ethnic groups, Persian and Azeri are the two largest ethnicities
while the rest of the population is divided into the other seven ethnicities.
Iran is broken down into communities in which each ethnicity has its section. Most
of the population lives within urban areas resulting in seven cities having a
population over one million people. As Iran continues to urbanize they face ups
and downs. Iranians have access to decent health care and a free education system,
but they are also faced with pollution contaminating their air and water.
Around 87% of their population is educated, however this percentage reflects
the population that live in the more urban areas. For those who live rural
areas and women there is still a struggle to reach them and give them the
chance to an education as well. The current Supreme Leader is Sayyed Ali
Hosseini Khamenei and current President is Hassan Rouhani who was elected in 2013.