are usually a part of research publication that can give a perspective of
whether a research is deemed reliable and whether adequate studies were
conducted to produce results. “A literature review is an objective, thorough
summary and critical analysis of the relevant available research and
non-research literature on the topic being studied.” (Cronin, Ryan &
Coughlin 2008) “A literature review is the process of finding relevant research
reports, critically appraising the studies, and synthesizing the study results,
they provide the background for the problem studied (Grove, Burns & Gray 2015).
Though some literature review processes are the same, however the process differs
between quantitative and qualitative research.
Quantitative Literature Review
literature review in quantitative research is conducted to direct the planning and
execution of a study. A literature review is conducted before and after the study,
however, the results of both reviews are included in the research report (Grove,
et al., 2015). The literature review
that is conducted before a particular study outlines the way that the study
will be conducted based on given statistics and variables. The variables can
range from participants, environment or cost.
Qualitative Literature Review
(2015) states that “qualitative literature reviews does not provide a lot of
literature due to the fact that qualitative studies are conducted on topics
that we have little information about.” It can be concluded that researchers do
not want prior knowledge and results of a specific topic to influence their
results. Without the prior research, one is unable to validate what the
accurate results are or should be. This is can be noted as misconduct in
research. When researchers choose to use literature, they only incorporate
literature to support specific methods that yield their results (Grove, et al.,
When reconstituting medications, writing a
paper or researching a topic, the information
we encounter or
learn comes from somewhere. That somewhere can be known as a source, whether it
is a person or search engine. A source can be described as an origination point.
There are various types of sources such as primary, secondary and tertiary. The
origin of the source determines how the source is classified.
the first thing that comes to mind, when you hear the word primary? For me, it
was first, as in primary school was the first school I attended besides daycare.
A primary source is usually a report by the original researchers of a study (Cronin,
et al., 2008). This individual can give a firsthand account of what the study
entails because they were the orchestrator of the ideas. If one were to conduct
a study that has not previously been conducted, that individual would be known
as the primary source.
secondary source summarizes or quotes content from a primary source. Secondary
sources paraphrase what the primary source has written and interpret this
information as their own (Grove, et al., 2015). This can lead to misinterpretation
and misrepresentation of the information being presented. Secondary sources shouldn’t
be used as the first line of research, but it should be used when primary
sources aren’t available.
Types of Hypotheses
Whenever I hear the term hypothesis,
I cannot help but to think back to being in elementary and middle school and
conducting an experiment for the science fair. The hypothesis was what was
predicted to occur based on the variables being experimented. According to
Grove (2015), the hypothesis should translate the research problem and purpose into
a clear explanation or prediction of the expected results or outcomes. Hypotheses
also influence the study design, sampling method, data collection and analysis
process of interpretation of findings (Fawcett & Garity, 2008). The
hypothesis that one uses in a study is guided by the purpose of the study. A
hypothesis can be a combination of hypotheses in a published study.
Simple versus complex
simple hypothesis varies from a complex hypothesis in terms of one being
simple, limited variables and the other is complex, multiple variables. What this
means is that the simplex states the relationship between two variables while the
complex hypothesis states a relationship between three or more variables
(Grove, et al., 2015). An example of a simple hypothesis would be children that
are born to alcoholic mothers are more than likely to have learning deficits
than children born to non-alcoholic mothers. An example of a complex hypothesis
would be that children born to alcoholic, drug using mothers are likely to have
learning deficits more than a child born to non-alcoholic, non-drug using
mothers. The simple hypothesis contains two variables while the complex
hypothesis contains three variables.
Nondirectional versus directional
means that a relationship exists, but there is not a particular direction in which
the nature of the relationship will go. Whereas, a directional hypothesis will
specifically state the nature of interaction between all of the variables
involved (Grove, et al, 2015). An example of nondirectional hypothesis would be
that new nurses provide care for their patients. An example of a directional
hypothesis would be that nurses with years of experience provide satisfactory
care with a positive attitude. The directional hypothesis uses terms that
correlate with the results.
Associative versus causal
defines an associative hypothesis as identifying relationships among variables
in a study but do not indicate that one variable causes an effect on another. A
casual hypothesis proposes a cause and effect interaction between two or more variables,
referred to as independent and dependent variables (Grove, et al, 2015). An example
of an associative hypothesis that the bad weather caused an individual to
become involved in an accident. While this statement may be true, there is no evidence
to support this statement. An example of a casual hypothesis is that tobacco
use can lead to cancer. Numerous studies have shown that tobacco use is a
contributing factor of individuals being diagnosed with cancer.
Statistical versus research
hypothesis is used in statistical testing to interpret statistical outcomes. A
research hypothesis states that a relationship exists between two more
variables. All hypotheses can be deemed as a research hypothesis (Grove, et