Omair Shah Student ID:17072505 Business Effectiveness Introduction In this assignment this will show different theories including Abraham Maslow’s theory, Hertzberg’s theory and Douglas MacGregor’s theory and link them to organisations that consists of various backgrounds. From this it will indicate how organisations will comply with meeting individuals needs and how businesses interact with one another from Mangers to employees and employees to one another. What is motivation According to (Anon, 2017) Motivation is a force which causes individuals to act in ways which they would personally not chose to do, but do only because of factors that are causing them to do so. For example, a pay rise would be a motivating factor therefore individuals would have a desire to work to their best of abilities in order to achieve what is necessary for the motivating factor. AbrahamMaslow’s Theory According to Maslow ‘When an individual asks what a man wants from life we deal with his very essence’. Maslow recognises than an act has more than one motivation therefore goes on to build a hierarchy which enables him to recognise human motivation whereby the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another need. Maslow States that behaviour is always, biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well. (Healy, 2016) Maslow’s theory highlights the needs that would require employees to be motivated during their time at work. The hierarchy shows the most fundamental needs starting from the bottom of the pyramid and the need for self-esteem and self-actualisation located at the top of the pyramid. Maslow strongly believes that the most important factor would be physical needs which would include food, water, warmth and rest. It is important that organisations ensure they meet physiological needs in order to be able to move up on the pyramid to security. Security would be the next step on the pyramid as it enables employees to feel safer at work. This would also include the health and safety around work such as safe equipment and facilities that are accessible by employees and to provide personal lockers in order to keep belongings safe. Belonginess and love would be important around an organisation as it allows individuals to associate with one another, form friends, teams, to need and receive love around the working environment. Esteem Needs would be the next physiological need within the pyramid. This enables employees to feel respected at work and grant them a status in order to feel part of the organisation. Status is important for employees as it allows employees to be themselves and show their real personality. Self-Actualization would be defined as creativity. This allows employees to be the best they can be, being themselves, feeling satisfied with their work and what they do within an organisation and knowing that the individual truly believes that they are being valued at an organisation for their hard work and dedication towards their role. (Etzioni, 2017) Douglas MacGregor’s Theory Douglas McGregor is known for his work regarding the theory x and y of human motivation and management. McGregor did not state that the staff would be one type or the other, however he saw two theories as two extremes resulting in a whole spectrum of possible behaviours between the two theories according to (Journal of Managerial Issues, 2017) Theory X managers would tend to take a negative view of their employees and from this assume that their individuals are naturally unmotivated and dislike work. As an end result manager think that staff would need to be either rewarded, prompted or even punished continuously in order to achieve the best out of their staff. Theory X consists of employees who Dislike work and avoid it when possible Desire security Dislike responsibility and prefer to be led Have to be forced to work Theory Y managers have an optimistic and positive opinion towards their employees and use a participative management style in order to encourage staff and improve the relationship between managers and employees. Theory Y consists of employees who are happy to work Involved with tasks such as decision making Have positive vibes for work Self-motivated when completing tasks set Encouraged and do not dislike work According to (Gannon and Boguszak, 2013) A summary of all this would be that Theory X managers would have more responsibilities towards their employees and would have to designate specific motivators in order to motivate staff and encourage them to perform their work to the best of their abilities. Whereas Theory Y managers would have a responsibility to keep positive relationships between managers and employees and ensure staff are keeping positive towards their work. Hertzberg’s 2 factor Theory Hertzberg’s theory had close links with Maslow’s theory and suggested a two-factor theory for motivating employees. Hertzberg argued that there are certain factors that could motivate employees in order to make employees work harder. However, there were also factors that would demotivate employees such as hygiene factors. Hertzberg suggested that organisations should motivate staff by adopting a democratic approach towards managing employees and by improving the nature of the job through specific methods. These methods would include Job enrichment- Giving employees more tasks and challenging them with complex situations to make them feel more part of the organisation Job Enlargement- Employees being more productive by giving them more to do such as making the work more interesting Empowerment- Giving power to employees to be able to make their own decisions as this will make them feel part of the organisation A summary for all this would be giving employees more responsibilities will lead to employees being more encouraged to work, giving challenges and making the work they have perform interesting in order to achieve the best out of their abilities. Management within a Multicultural organisation An organisation can use motivation as a key aspect within their organisation in order to achieve the best they can from their employees. Having a multicultural environment not only within the UK but many other countries this expands an organisation duties as they will have to concentrate on keeping staff comfortable in order to achieve the best from each individual. A multicultural environment would consist of having different cultures being able to get along with one another and being able to adapt to their roles comfortably. Within a multicultural organisation it is important than an organisation adjusts and meets the requirements of individuals so that employees are kept satisfied. Maslow’s Theory Religion would be a key aspect regarding a multicultural environment as a business would have to meet the needs of one another. As religions are different prayer, belief and holidays would be a main aspect behind keeping employees happy. For example, Christians would be requiring days of on festivals such as Easter and Christmas. This would be important for them therefore the organisation would have to ensure they are giving holidays for those celebrating the festival. This would also be a motivating factor for organisations as they will be able to grant holidays to those celebrating leading to employees feeling more encouraged to work. This links back to Malow’s theory as belonginess and love will be improved if employees are kept happy by the organisation. Other religions such as Muslims, Sikhs, Jews and further on would also have their own celebrations therefore it would be right for an organisation to grant all employees with holidays when necessary. This will also improve the teamwork within an organisation as other employees will cover those absent leading to the ones off covering the ones who take holidays within the future. Another part of this could be prayer for Muslims having an organisation that allows different beliefs to pray when necessary, having facilities such as prayer rooms. This will keep positivity around the workforce and staff will be pleased with the organisation for taking care of their employees needs even towards their faith. Douglas McGregor’s Theory Within an organisation there are different departments such as higher-level staff and lower level staff. Linking back to Douglas’s theory having managers on top of employees will encourage staff to work harder as they will feel relieved knowing they have higher departments keeping watch on them ensuring tasks are complete and responsibilities are fulfilled. If managers keep positive opinions on their employees and encourage them correctly by having positive relationships employees will feel more encouraged to work as they will feel that their part of the organisation and that their duties are important. Within an organisation employees should also be given decision making in order to ensure employees are given chances to feel part of the organisation. This will benefit the business as employees will all be kept positive and will achieve the best out of each individual. Within a multicultural environment it would be important that all cultures are welcomed and that different cultures are given equal roles and responsibilities. It would be an unfair act to have the same culture all managing other employees as this will lead to negativity within the business. Another motivational factor could be that men and women are kept separate within an organisation. This would be motivating factor for employees as some cultures would not be able to adjust with working with other genders. This would build a positive environment as employees will feel pleased with the organisation as they will be pleased with the actions the business is taking towards individuals faiths and concerns regarding their religion. Hertzberg’s 2 factor theory With Hertzberg’s theory there are no motivational theories in regards to different cultures. However, Hertzberg’s theory would comply with several organisations as there are key motivational factors that will ensure growth for a business towards getting the best out of their employees. Giving power to employees, greater and challenging tasks in order for employees to feel part of the organisaton. This will benefit an organisation as employees will work harder than usual and work will be completed to the best of each individual’s abilities. If this continues within an organisation every department will be successful which will lead to positivity throughout the whole business. (Managementstudyguide.com, 2017) Conclusion To conclude it is important that organisations use motivational factors from all three theories to ensure staff are motivated and that the businesses are achieving the best from them. From this organisations can learn how to adapt to multicultural environments and to be able to adapt to changes such as having different facilities, giving holidays during festivals and prayer rooms. If organisations comply with individuals needs it will build a strong workforce and an organisation will more likely be successful as employees represent the organisation. If employees are kept happy work will be completed more efficiently and a business will run smoothly and the organisaton will receive better income as employees will be working at higher levels for the business. References Etzioni, A. (2017). The Moral Wrestler: Ignored by Maslow. Society, 54(6), pp.512-519 Gannon, D. and Boguszak, A. (2013). DOUGLAS MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y. CRIS – Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study, 2013(2). Healy, K. (2016). A Theory of Human Motivation by Abraham H. Maslow. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(4), pp.1-5. Journal of Managerial Issues. (2017). 20(2) Managementstudyguide.com. (2017). Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of Motivation. online Available at: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/herzbergs-theory-motivation.htm Accessed 13 Dec. 2017. Oxford Dictionaries | English. (2017). motivation | Definition of motivation in English by Oxford Dictionaries. online Available at: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/motivation Accessed 13 Dec. 2017. Simply Psychology. (2017). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. online Available at: https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html Accessed 13 Dec. 2017. .