Politics: the twin towers and the pentagon causing

Politics: An example of a war based on politics in war and conflict
is after 9/11 when George Bush, President of the USA at the time in 2001
decided to go to war with Iraq and Afghanistan. The famous attacks on 9/11 are
when the terrorist group Al Qaeda hit the twin towers and the pentagon causing
over 2000 deaths and roughly 6000 injured. This caused a massive uproar
throughout the United States, citizens were horrified and angry that so many
innocent lives had been lost. George Bush decided in order to take revenge on
what the terrorist did to his country he would go to war with Afghanistan and
Iraq sending over 400,000 troops. (Robert Giroux, BBC.co.uk, 2001)


Nationalism: An example of a war based on nationalism is the conflict
in Northern Ireland in the 1968. The conflict was over whether to go
independent and become part of the republic of Ireland or remain part of the
British empire. Irish protestants, who were the majority formed the Ulster
Volunteer Force who were keen to stay part of it while Irish nationalist formed
the Irish volunteers who wanted to be part of the republic of Ireland. The
conflict however was not about religion at all, it was about national identity
and belongings. The IRA and INLA were involved as well as the British army to
keep the peace. The deaths during the war came to around 3000 with 50,000
people injured. The conflict came to an end in a ceasefire in 1998, Northern
Ireland still remains part of Britain but protestants and Catholics are now in Partnership.
(Dennis Murray, BBC.co.uk, 2005)

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Religion: An example of war based upon religion is the Palestinian
Israeli conflict. Israel is a Jewish state which is surrounded by Muslim
states. In the late 1940’s the Muslim states wanted to destroy Israel because
they were a Jewish state. The Arabs have initiated 4 wars against the Israeli.
The conflict is still going on today in 1973 the Yom Kippur war happened due to
the conflict, this was when the Palestinians, Syrians and Egyptian Army’s did a
surprise attack on Israel on the day of Yom Kippur a holy Jewish day,
eventually a cease-fire was organised by the United Nations. (Eretz Yisra?el, britannica.com,


and resources: Land and
resources are a cause of some wars as countries will invade other countries to
get land and Natural resources and take parts of the land. A war caused by land
and resources is the Gulf War in 1990. Saddam Hussain’s Iraq invaded Kuwait for
petroleum which even Iraq had at the time but they wanted more, this then activated
the Gulf War which started on the 2nd August 1990 and ended on 28th February
1991. The Gulf War started when Iraq was at war with Iran. During this war Iran
was attacking Iraq and attacking oil tankers from Kuwait at sea too. Saddam
Hussein stationed 100,000 troops on the border and in early August invaded
Kuwait. As the Iraqi forces invaded and took over. (history.com,2002).


Ideology: is also a common cause of war and conflict because it can
be troubling when people of countries cannot decide on a same idea and everyone
is strongly about their idea and the other for example person on theirs that
can lead to a conflict as they can’t agree on something. E.g., The Cold War


2.2: Evaluate links between conflicts and terrorism


According to their article it states: Taken in isolation,
most of Britain’s security, defence and diplomatic community readily accept
that an increased terror threat inside the UK follows after any military
intervention in a predominantly Muslim country. (bbc.co.uk, 2017) Tony Blair
invasion of Iraq in March 2003
the government’s
Joint Intelligence Committee was blunt in its assessment of possible
consequences of war with Iraq: an assessment which was then marked Top Secret
but was declassified to allow its publication as part of the findings of the
Chilcot Inquiry.( Gavin Stamp, bbc.co.uk, 2017) The Chilcot Inquiry in other
words is known as the Iraq War Inquiry and was set up in 2009 by then Prime
Minister Gordon Brown to examine the UK’s involvement in the Iraq war. (
Christopher Hope, telegraph.co.uk,2016)  Following the involvement of the UK in the
American invasion of Iraq Islamist terrorist groups reacted to what the UK and
United States have done to Iraq. The BBC and other news articles state that the
largest single terror attack in Britain took place on 7/7, in July 2005, of
course. Few arguments that Britain’s choice to join the attack and invasion of
Iraq was used by the 7/7 attackers and those who had radicalised them as part
of their reason for killing civilians in Britain.


It is also true that following British military
action overseas – including in Libya – has been used by extremists to justify
further massacre of innocents in the UK. Another example would be; Salman
Abedi, the 22-year-old terrorist who murdered 22 people in a suicide bombing at
Manchester Arena last month, has been linked to the (Libyan Islamic Fighting
Group) LIFG. (GARETH DAVIES, dailymail.co.uk,2017)



2.3: Evaluate the impact of conflict on UK and international
public service organisations


The impact of war can heavily damage
the environment and leave a heavy impact on people’s lives who are victims and
also on those who are involved in the war such as soldiers. The types of
environment that gets destroyed because of war is natural resources collapse,
land and forests destruction and many more others. This can leave a devastating
effect by the costs of war. Seriously wounded casualties and soldiers, probable
some of the other members who are part of the public services such as fire
fighters, paramedics etc. The workers in public services put their own lives in
danger in order to rescue the civilians and the country. The war can also cost
millions worth of money that has to be spent depending on the damages that had
been caused by war. (prezi.com,


The costs are very high as the
government spent £9.4 billion possibly more during the conflict with
Afghanistan. (nato.inl, 2005) This shows how this may affect the people in
Britain as they have to pay taxes back to the government and this will affect
the people in the society especially at times when the taxes rise up. The Czech
Republic, Poland and Hungary joined the NATO in 1999, in the association’s
first round of post-Cold War expansion. Their agreement shows a landmark in
their combination into the trans-Atlantic community and a recognition by
ancient NATO members that they had made a successful change in creating
self-governing political systems and market economies. But, the Czech
Republic’s first two years of membership in NATO have had more than their share
of problems. Czech Republic has had trouble sustaining its duties towards the
grouping and has faced discouraging problems in reorganisation its Cold War
legacy military into a group well-matched with the association framework. (nato.inl, 2005) But, separating the Czechs from Hungarians and Polish,
some foreign and security policies of the Czech Republic have seemed at times
to opposition from NATO and have familiar doubts within NATO about the
country’s trustworthiness as an association member.(bbc.co.uk, 2015)


In order to investigate the greater
causes of the seeming Czech doubt about NATO and to assess the impact of NATO
association on Czech visions of security, specialist Thomas Szayna led a
survey-based study to inspect the degree to which the Czech public categorises
with its tasks as an association member. (rand.org, 2016) As NATO reproduces
growing association to other post-Communist countries. 2 thirds of the public know
that real membership in NATO needs a well-performing Czech military, fully
joint in NATO. The Czech public has a good kind of the military’s problems and
is ready to release vital military upgrading, if there are sensible pledges
that the funds for reform will not be wasted through dishonesty or poorly
thought-out strategy of change. They also found that, even though Czechs are
highly dangerous of the current state of the Czech military, they recall a high
level of trust in the armed forces. On the other hand, Czechs show a high level
of displeasure with the presentation of Czech political and legitimate bodies
and are disbelieving of their efficiency in times of crisis. Strong Czech
support for NATO is linked to an awareness of shared answerability and a
promise to assist connections in time of need. However, the Czechs have not
fully accepted the meaning of non-Article 5 alliance operations. (huffingtonpost.com,
2013) Without a clear knowledge of the connection between NATO’s peace
operations and European security, and absent public debate on these issues,
most Czechs understood Operation Allied Force, NATO’s action against Yugoslav
President Slobodan Milosevic’s defeat of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, as a
decline into Cold War patterns of behaviour and a violence by a military association
against an independent country. (theguardian.com, 2015)


The study found that the main source
of Czech hesitation towards NATO is an insight of a low level of influence that
the public has on decision-making in security issues. This lack of clearness
and public debate in the Czech decision to join NATO, demonstrated by the lack
of a vote on the issue, is the main source of the problem. When taxpayers are
neither referred about their views on agreement nor informed properly about the
costs of agreement, as happened in the Czech Republic, both the quality of the
new member’s membership is damaged, and NATO has to deal with discomfitures
that are possibly damaging to its operations. In other words, inadequacies in
the democratic process in the Czech Republic continue to affect Czech attitudes
and behaviour toward NATO. This is the most relevant lesson regarding the
expected next round of expansion and one that the association should not
re-learn. (rand.org, 2015)



2.4: Analyse the roles of national and international
organisations in recent conflicts




You bring out rules that all affiliate countries are
supposed to stand by the United Kingdom on recycling, then takes those rule and
tools them straight away in some cases beyond the needs of the rules and
occasionally applying punishments for breach these rules before the official
European Union put down time limit has been reached. The United Kingdom has the
littlest beurocracy in the European Union and will thoroughly apply all
European Union rule to the letter. Most European rules are not rules they are
guidelines and common sense should be used when implementing them. Weights and
measures is a prime example loose goods can be sold in imperial weights as long
as an easily read conversion chart is openly displayed and the weighing
equipment is calibrated and certified as being accurate.


Virtually all other European countries cherry pick the
legislation that benefits them and ignores any that will harm their economy or
population. The UK on the last round of new entrants to the EU granted workers
from those countries immediate access to our jobs market and benefits system
whereas all the other countries waited three years whilst those new countries
were on trial before giving way those rights perfectly legal and perfectly
acceptable under EU rules. So money that would have been spent on public
services is diverted to benefit these new immigrants by way of benefits, free
translation services and many more.



UN agencies, programmes and funds do work directly in
countries mainly poorer just beginning countries and they do a lot of the stuff
that governments would normally do in richer places. They help build houses,
get people access to medicine and clean water, and help conduct elections, and
so on. There are also broader goals set at the UN level regarding public
services. You’ve heard of the Millennium Development Goals. The Millennium
Development Goals are a target all United Nation country has agreed to well,
they voted on it. Make things better by 2015. A lot of the Millennium
Development Goals are regarding stuff like poverty and education, so efforts to
meet the MDGs are in effect improving public services. Finally, apart from the
MDGs, there are also a lot of treaties conducted at the UN level which are
about protecting the rights of children and ethnic minorities, and many more.
That could involve improving services too it’s a pressure for governments to do
so, anyway. NATO generally doesn’t do this stuff. Obviously they’re a military
organization. Traditionally their role has been to shoot people, or to share
better ways of shooting people. But times are changing. NATO increasingly does
hold meetings and such where they discuss all sorts of stuff, not just military
affairs. As the traditional military role of NATO becomes less important, they
have to find other things to do. NATO on the ground, NATO workers in
Afghanistan do vigorously go around building new schools, they set up hygiene
systems and build clean water systems, and they help with all sorts of physical
rebuilding. In that sense NATO has done a lot to improve public services in



The British Red Cross helps people in disaster, whoever and
wherever they are. The Red Cross are part of a global voluntary network,
responding to wars, natural disasters and separate emergencies. The Red Cross
help vulnerable people in the UK and abroad prepare for, suffer and recover
from emergencies in their own communities.

The British Red Cross were found on 4 August 1870, at a
time when Europe was suffering war after bloody war. The Red Cross’s original
mission was to help the injured and sick in time of war, but as the nature of
war changed their services have long-drawn-out to help citizens in harmony as
well. A group of 22 noticeable men as well as military officers, surgeons, and
members of the House of Lords formed to guide the unexperienced organisation.
(Colonel Loyd-Lindsay) was the chairman. The ladies’ committee was controlled
by (Queen Victoria’s) daughter, (Princess Christian). (Florence Nightingale)
was also a member. (Queen Victoria) was the party’s supporter, and the Prince
of Wales, later Edward VII, was the president.


The British Red Cross is based all over the UK officially
but it is based all over the world as I am going to write them down:
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Djibouti, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Guinea, Liberia,
Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Iraq, Pakistan, Philippines, Sierra Leone, South
Africa, Syria, Turkmenistan, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

The British Red Cross is known by the UK Government as one
of three Voluntary Aid Civilisations, the other 2 being St John Ambulance and
St Andrew’s Ambulance Association. It is the single Red Cross Society for the
United Kingdom and the British Overseas Lands.



Nato stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. Nato is a
worldwide system of government which brings together the armies of many
countries from all over the world, including Britain and the United States. It
was formed in 1949, after the end of the Second World War. Also there are 26
member countries and I will list a few below:





The main and official base of the Nato’s headquarters are
based in Brussels, Belgium.

The main aim of Nato is to make sure that its
member countries don’t fight and start war against each other, and that instead
they use their forces to work together for world peace. Nato has been used more and more in situations where the
world has decided urgent military action is needed. Nato member
countries agree that if any one country is attacked, the other countries will
come to help them and get involved by solving the issues. It’s hoped this will
stop military attacks on any Nato country. Nato countries also unite together
for worldwide peacekeeping operations, such as in Bosnia and Kosovo. NATO’s
military system of government and structures include all military actors and
formations that are involved in and used to put into practice political
decisions that have military implications.


3.1: Examine recent examples of political change internationally


Zimbabwe was a very well off country. It was considered the
“Bread-basket of Africa”. It had productive mines, with some of the
largest platinum deposits in the world. It produced some of the best tobacco in
the world and had a booming tourist economy. The country could easily feed
itself, it was a net producer of food crops, having more than enough to export.
(africacheck.org,2017) Now, the problems started in 1980, the year Mugabe was democratically
elected as president. There are two major Black-African groups in Zimbabwe, the
Shona, and the Matabele. Mugabe is a Shona. Now, in 1980, in Matabeleland, the
heartland of the Matabele people, there was huge unhappiness at Mugabe’s
victory, so there were uprisings. These uprisings were followed by a second,
more violent one in February 1981, in which 300 people were killed. (bbc.co.uk,


Mugabe would respond with the “Gukurahundi”, or
the “Matabele Massacres”, from 1982 to 1985. During these massacres,
armed forces under the command of Mugabe slaughtered up to 20,000 Matebele in
retribution for the earlier uprisings. (biznews.com, 2017) A further 2,000 –
3,000 Matabele ear-marked as trouble makers or political opponents were also
imprisoned during this period and tortured. (bulawayo24.com, 2017) There was a
steady increase in government control over universities and other areas of the
country which resulted in wide-spread protests from trade unions, workers and
students in the 90’s. These protests were met with violence by police. From
1993 until this very day, anti-government protests are illegal and are almost
certainly met with violence. Widespread strikes in 1994 weakened the economy
and strikes in 1996 by health care workers plunged the country into a health
crisis it has not recovered from. (http://citeseerx.ist.psu, 2015)


The nail in Zimbabwe’s coffin came in 2000, when Mugabe
issued his “land grab” order. People who were considered veterans of
Zimbabwe’s civil war were permitted, by the government, to forcibly seize
farming land from white farmers. These farmers received no aid from the police
and their pleas fell on deaf ears. Prior to this, there had been a country wide
disarming process of the farmers. The joke is, many of the war “veterans”
where as young as 18 years old, the war ended 20 years ago. (news24.com, 2017) So
basically, it was a free-for-all land grab aimed at expelling white
Zimbabweans. The land-grab caused Zimbabwe’s thriving agricultural sector to
collapse. Agriculture was Zimbabwe’s primary contributor to export profits.
Aside from the loss of money, the country also hit food shortages worsened by
drought. The country now suffers food, fuel, water and electricity shortages,
with major cities only having water switched on 3 times a week, other more
isolated areas no longer have electricity. He has rigged the last two
presidential elections. The only good thing Mugabe done was to topple a racist,
minority regime. Since then he has destroyed a once prosperous country. Zimbabwe
holds the Guinness World Record for hyper-inflation. (zoliblog.com, 2008)
Zimbabwean cities are awash with billion dollar notes that litter the streets,
as worthless as the dust coating them. He’s oppressive, he’s a dictator, he has
overseen what amounts to genocide and he is a racist.


3.2: Evaluate the effectiveness of international
organisations’ management of recent political change situations



One problem
of Brexit that effected the work is a lot of young people cannot find jobs so
unemployment rates gone up but not only that but the wages have gone up for the
current employee meaning that once we leave the EU the rate of pay against the
amount of employees is going to shoot up even higher. And that is according to
(theguardian,2017) article on how Brexit is going to effect the UK economy
below I have attached a pictures of the bar charts for the current situation on
the British economy due to the Brexit vote.