Taking and cultures. In his first paper, the

Taking the research topic into consideration, a throughout
research of literature in the fields of innovation adoption, consumer
perception, consumer buying behaviour and social science studies on millennials
need to be collected. In the ground-breaking paper of 1962, Rogers describes with
help of his adoption curve how new innovations and ideas are accepted and
adopted by groups and cultures. In his first paper, the theory of adoption and
diffusion was primarily applied to agriculture and in 1962 to new ideas in
technology. Rogers theory of adoption and diffusion turned into a success and
the concept has been “widely researched over the years” (Midgley, 1997;
Midgley& Dowling, 1978; Ostlund, 1974; Robertson, 1971; Rogers&
Shoemaker, 1971). There is a considerable amount of literature on previous
generations and most research papers applied the concept of adoption and
diffusion on earlier generation. Therefore, there is very little known about
the current generations. Moreover, the concept has been applied vast amount of
time on different fields of the global industry. There is a gap of research in
fashion adoption of the 21st century consumer. There is even a
larger gap in research of Beauty adoption.


Taken a step further, there are a surprising number of
research with focus “on coexistence of local and global cultures in a country
(Kjeldgaard& Askegaard, 2006; Steenkamp and de Jong, 2010; Thompson and
Arsel, 2004). Due to the rapid growth of technology and social media, there has
been a “various degree of exposure to global trends”. Cairncross in 2001 stated
that researchers have been agreeing that the global marketplace has become
increasingly standardized and even declared the “death of distance” due to the
emerging globalisation. In contrary to the previous statement by Cairncross
(2001), Ghemawat argued in 2001 that the “impact of globalisation is greatly
overstated and that distance is still significant.”

Geert Hofstede (2002) who is well known for his researchers
in cross-cultural studies “insist that “local consumers are still influenced by
their persistent cultural values”. (Mooji and Hofstede, 2002)

Considering that the research question involves UK
millennials who are extremely tech savvy and disposed to global trends and come
from diverse backgrounds/ethnicities, it is important to explore how these
diverse consumers are influenced to adopt globally diffused products. There is
a lack of studies that explore local and global consumer cultures
simultaneously (Cleveland and Laroche, 2007). The aim of this study is to examine
consumers’ adoptability of globally diffused brands in the UK market.


According to Midgley and Dowling (1978) “consumer innovativeness
refers to the degree to which an individual is receptive to new ideas and makes
innovation decisions independently.” On top of that, Berry et al. (2002)
examines adoption of innovation on an individual level as he believes that
individuals do not “process cultural influence identically” as individuals adapt
to different degrees, while Mowen (2000) employs “a hierarchical model of
consumer innovativeness to fully understand the pattern of cultural adaption
and its impact on individuals’ adoption of innovation.”


There are various of different models and frameworks, which
can be used to explore consumer perception on innovation in the beauty industry
in terms of product and the market overall. In terms of innovation adoption,
Rogers’ diffusion of innovation model (1962), which splits the consumer group
into five category (Innovators, Early adopters, early majority, late majority
and leggards) is a broadly accepted model by many researchers. In terms of the
fashion and beauty industry, the fashion consumer is far more complex and the
model is too basic. There are also many theories and models to explain the
consumer buying behaviour, e.g. the theory of reasoned action, which was
published in the 1960s. Most of these models are dealing with a different type
of consumer group that are not acceptable anymore.


The theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) is an
extension of the theory of resoned action by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) and
states that behavioural intention leads to behaviour. It is rooted in social
psychology and is followed by a model. Another model is the extended technology
acceptance model by Venkatesh and Davis (2000) which is an extension of the
first technology acceptance model by Davis (1989). Even though these model
focus on technology innovativeness and calculates its perceived usefulness, perceived
ease of use and the attitude towards the system it can be modified to meet
product innovativeness in terms of the beauty industry.