Within and the environmental protection and two contradictory

Within The last millennium has seen dramatic changes in
climate. This has caused debate in science to what extent humans have
influenced the global sphere. This brought about an important and controversial
issue of whether we have moved into a new geological epoch. Paul Crutzen and
Gene Stoermer (2001) proposed that we have moved out of the Holocene into the
Anthropocene. This was based on key human impacts on the Earths System. There
is no doubt that the dramatic increase in population and in our resources, have
had a major consequence for the earth’s environment. These human increases have
resulted in atmospheric changes especially because of technology changes and the
development of cars. (Roberts, N 2014)

Liu, Z (2016) Carbon emissions report shows an understanding
of a consistent, comprehensive and accurate estimate of carbon emissions from
fossil fuels are fundamental to understanding the global carbon cycle and
design practices and approaches to reduce carbon emissions. Chinas industrial
distributions has changed since the 1990’s where data now shows in 2010 that
there is a nationwide dramatic increase in the energy output and the resultant
carbon emissions the paper explores the period of 1995-2010 especially the
underdeveloped areas have begun a period of rapid industrialisation. With areas
such as Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia developing greatly. The paper points out
that Chinese energy consumption and carbon emissions have been accelerating because
of its rapid economic development, but the statistical technology and
management standards lagged behind. Resulting in rapid CO2 emissions.

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The study also shows some of the historical data of CO2 distributions
from 1997 during the initial start of the industrial revolution and the changes
in China foreign policy (Chai, J.C., 1998).
The study shows how Shanghai has seen increasing Carbon emissions. This can be
seen in table (). 



























Zheng et al (2015) this paper looks at exploring the steady
economic growth and the environmental protection and two contradictory goals of
top priorities within China (2016-2020) planning projects. Cities play an
important role in economic and environmental development. The research on
cities economic pollution relationship is vital to the choices in cities
developing patterns. Economic growth and environmental pollution of 111 Chinese
prefectural level cities from the period of 2004- 2012. The paper looked at how
these might influence the choice of a cities developing patterns. The paper
identifies that balancing governmental policies and environmental security and
economic growth has been a major dilemma. China is the world’s largest
developing country; the country has seen a thriving economy since the 21st.
the country has had one of the fastest increases in the world. The GDP in 2010
was 2nd in the world (world bank 2014) and is still 2nd
in 2018 showing that the country is experiencing continuous growth. However,
though China experiences serious environmental pollution and issues because of
this rapid industrialisation. The common view in regard to pollution and
developing countries is that industrialisation, economic growth is usually
accompanied by environmental impacts. The conclusions of this study is that the
production and changes of the urban industrial pollution are always accompanied
by economic growth. And the unique patterns of economic growth across cities
always affect pollution both in quality and in the changing patterns. The paper
also identified that cities with high GDP’s can take action on reducing the
carbon footprints and the pollution is produces. Beijing and Shanghai are
identified within the paper indicating that they have already made positive
efforts to assist the development of high tech and energy efficient
enterprises. Such as pollution regulators.

Gregg et al (2008) paper “China Emissions pattern of the
world leader in CO2” looks at the release of Carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil
fuels combustion and cement manufacture, these two processes are the primary
anthropogenic drivers of climate change. China has become the leading CO2
emitter globally. The primary concern is that these factors are contributing to
dramatic increases in greenhouse gases. Therefore, the core aspect of this
paper is to identify and address the concern in anthropogenic climate change.
The Carbon Dioxide information analysis centre (CDIAC) shows that global
emissions from fossil fuels and cement have increased. Where 54% are
contributed by China from 2001-2006.  Additionally, this paper developed ideas from Raupach
et al (2007) where this paper looks into how CO2 emissions from fossil fuels
and industrial processes have been accelerated at a global scale. The emission
growth rate has risen since 2000 rapidly, as a result of this intergovernmental
panels on climate change have had an intensive period of trying to reduce
greenhouse gases. The Development and industrialisation has driven the
increases in CO2 production and greenhouse gases. With CO2 production resulting
in 63% of gaseous forces responsible for anthropogenic climate change.

Papers such as Guan et al (2009) identifies that Chinas economy has been
growing at such an accelerated rate from 2002 to 2005 that Chinas Carbon
emissions have increased and is responsible for 54% of carbon emissions (Gregg
et al 2008). However, this paper goes more in depth to understanding why china
produces such a high percentage of CO2 and greenhouse gases. They look at
comparing how China’s growth is related to consumption activity. Carbon
emissions are related to the consumption of an area. The paper identifies that
the area has been highly research but they located a gap in research through
the identification of the areas and what types of industries consume certain
quantities of energy. Studies have identified the driving forces of Chinese
emissions and their economic growth since their economic reforms. Wang and
Watson (2007) argued that China’s export production for developing counties is
an important driver in contributing Chinas emission increases especially in
2000 where China changed its foreign import and export policy. The growth in
Chinese exports between 2002 and 2005 is