Zines to their readers encouraging them be a

Zines are no-commercial, self-publishing which embraced and privilege from the DIY community, do-it-yourself, representing themselves against a society focused on consumption. This action of creating something for themselves and distribute, refusing what was made for them originated the fanzine culture. Having the DIY ideology to produce, the fanzine found direction on how to reflect and portrait everyday cultural experience and for some writes fanzine it’s a novel form of communicate.  Frederic Wertham (1954) is an author who studied cases such comics books, and fanzine. In the Seduction of the Innocent, (Fig 1)  Wertham’s study led how a big number of comics book were violent and encourage their readers to these kinds of environment. Wertham also studies a case where he describes fanzine as novel form of communication, adding how important and how unique it placed in the history of the communication and should have a maxime attention, because fanzine is a product outside of mass manipulation, also a bridge built by producers to their readers encouraging them be a producer.  The name zine was believed that it is a short name of the magazine, see that the word magazine ends up in a zine and seems to be more suitable to describe zine but zine and publication (magazine) are not the same. Larry Bobb (2003) is a zinester, creator of zine Holyticlmps, (Fig. 2.) and he disagrees with the word zine came out to the word magazine by saying on his zine  What Bobb’s views shows us is the context of Zine and magazine are not the same is that Zine are small press with DIY ethic whose the focus is not on profit and loss, authenticity rules zines, and connection, bring people with same interesting together. However, magazines are ruled by money, the money is what brings it to life, and without that support, the magazine wouldn’t come to life.  The zine medium had some changes due to being publish electronically, in order to understand how these changes occurred, it’s necessary to understand and get to know where the zine medium originated from. We can tell that zines originated in printed form as the started point, so in this chapter, in introduce and explain the history of zine and their characteristics that describe itself and diverge from others professional publishing such as, corporate magazines, glossary magazine, newsletter or other printed media. 1st Tech Development According to 1930s the zine medium was born, the origin of Zine, primarily by fans of science fiction which used to attend clubs which they founded. During their meetings, they started to produce ”fanzine” as a form of sharing ideas, same interested as science fiction stories, opening questions to debate the topic. Therefore, they could give a critical commentary about it. This action also was a way of communicating with them by creating and printing. New Worlds is the first British fanzine created. The first issue was published in 1936 by Maurice K. Hansen, and was called Nova Terrae , after 29 issues the fanzine was handed to a new owner who renamed the fanzine to New Worlds , translated from Latin to English. New Worlds fanzine only last 4 issues, facing the outbreak in 1939. Examples of these early fanzines are in (Fig 4- 9) The fanzine was seen as amateur publications naturally because big corporations didn’t produce them. In the middle of 1970s new influence of modern-day zines has shown itself also rejected and also critical of the mainstream music press. The fans of punk rock music were another group who started to create and to print about their music culture and environment. 48 Thrillers was one of the early fanzine from UK, presenting music groups during that period. Music groups such, The Clash, Exter, Sex Pistols and others bands. See (Fig 9- 10)Those two teams of zinester, the science fiction, and the punk rock music gave a perception of the zine to their readers, and in the early 1980s, these two streams became part of one small branch of publications. The branch was founded by fans interested in others artistic genres and survival of printed political protest during the sixties and seventies years. Mimeograph At the beginning of the fanzine community in 1930s, they relied upon the help of machines to produce a decent zine. Around that time, the tool was introduced which would allow printing a zine much easier. That machine it’s called Mimeograph, or we can use another name for it, Stencil Duplicator. The Duplicator machine is a device which task is to produce duplicate copies from a master, and this includes drawing, typography or any other element by applying multiple replications. People known mimeograph machine for using a stencil consisting of a coated fiber sheet, and the ink goes through the layer by pressing on it. The result is an identic copy. Duplicator was an accessible machine because it could produce up to 5,000 (five thousand) from a single stencil. Mimeograph machine became the most appropriate tool for copying files because it was low-cost printing press and called the attention of zinester. Before this printing press technology, zinesters used to produce their fanzines by hand, typing, printing and handling fundamental reproduction techniques such as hectograph. In 1929, readers of science fiction magazines used to use Mimeograph to communicate and editors started to print letters and fans began to write to each other. The mimeograph was very important at the beginning of the fanzines because it reinforced the immediacy of pass a message to the society.  An example, is the science fiction fanzine (Comet 1930) (Fig 11.) Comet was the first zine produced, and created with mimeograph machine. The cover of the zine contains elements linked to science fiction, such as space, planet and starts. The typeface used was made by hand, its shows clearly the use of basic tool to create it. An example is a long running Science Fiction fanzine. Another example Produced from 1953 until 1985,  Yandro was co-edited by a team, both husband and wife, Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson. Due to their excellent work, Juanita received a significant award for the Best Fanzine from 1958 to 1967, and for being the first woman in Science Fiction fan community getting the title. The work was produced by mimeograph/duplicator and was well received in the community. In the fanzine, we can find drawings, comics, and others relevant content connected to SF topic. Yandro 241, has fiction illustration such as Star Wars characters and vampires to interact with the reader and describe a live experience in fun or sometimes in a dramatic way.(Fig 12.) Mimeograph and others machines which were used to make zines, relying on stencil based and essentially required of master file to produce copies, became tools from the past for zine writers. These machines used to generate a limited number of copies, involving a toxic or chemical process were used until the 1970s. Xerography In the 1970s printer technology has improved, and a new machine was introduced, bringing along a modern movement of rebel music. The Xerox machine began to substitute the Duplicator, offering a more cost-efficient method to make documents without using chemical solutions. Xerography brought temporalities and possibilities, distinctly different from mimeograph, and theoretically gave the option to people photocopy anything faster than before, and at a fraction of the cost also promising a potential portable means of reproducing and circulating the documents around people.  According to the late 1940s and early 1950s, Xerography became noticeable by stretching across media and sectors by a company named Haloid Company. In the 1949, the company launched a brochure listed innovations and what the Xerox machine can do. Some of these innovations include, printing on garments and fabrics, copying handwritten or typewritten, plants, documents, objects and others materials. Indeed, the Xerography came with a lot benefits for those who sick of printing.  Xerography started playing an important role in helping demarcate, and solidify urban subcultures. In the twenty-first century, it acknowledged and served as the groundwork for some communities. One of them was the Zine community, which was formed of individuals and sometimes small groups with a DIY philosophy, and which became popular in the 1970s to mid-1990s, coinciding with the outspread possibility of the print machine and also the rise of the rock punk movement.  Around that time, we notice a significant number of fanzines dedicated mainly in promoting music bands, which people publicized in concerts. Besides, Xerography contributed to reach publics and counter-publics that used to be unreached. People could express their opinions and infinitely get expanded by cutting up information, or a critique found in newspaper or magazine and apply Collage technique, and show their point of view. Those kinds of things that we see stocked in zines, special the one produced with Xerox machine.  Xerography helped to push the Zines to a new stage and also defining this modern movement, which is known for using a lot the Xerox printing. The punk rock movement started to create their history, nothing was too extreme or exaggerate to show in the zine. Punk zines were characterized by applying collage technique and collecting as much information, such as interviews with others music bands, personal rants, record and tape reviews, letters from readers and manifestos. They started to put everything together and a little bit of montage, the punk rock zinester were building their zines. See (Fig 13-15.) Sniffin’ Glue was a punk fanzine founded by Mark Perry and named his zine Sniffin ‘ Glue after a group music called Ramones sing a track Now I Wanna Sniffin Some Glue.  During an interview, he explains how he found out what he wants saying:   Sniffin’ Glue and other Rick ‘n’ roll habits for pinheads and surfers! Issue 7, was a zine produced with Xerox, with a handwritten title in black pen and the main image is a photocopy picture, Perry applied collage on his punkzine.  Producing fanzine became a trend, people could share their thoughts without any concern, and one of the fascinated moment was being able to have a zine in their hands which intently someone will pass to another person, and this person is going to be motivated to make his fanzine, and start circulating.  Zine began to look more professional, more organized and new elements joined the community. In the 1980s, the internet became a useful tool to share the work. It was the rise of the internet, and the computer was being used frequently, bringing the Desktop publishing packages whose would give the possibility to generate text and layouts. Also, it opened the door to publish fanzines online and get recognized on the web. Desktop Publishing  Desktop Publishing (DTP) originated in 1985, and it is a tool particularly with a function to create documents using pages layouts skill whose applies on personal computers for small-scale or massive scale publication. It started by being introduced with software called PageMaker and a LaserWriter printer from Apple. In collaboration, both companies demonstrated that the DTP could create a WYSIWYG, a program that would allow seeing how the final result will look like while the document is being built and then being transferred to the printing process with high resolution, benefiting the typesetting industry. Every single zine is different from other, and the pages are organized differently from magazines because are produced by no- professional people and sometimes individuals who have no experience in the magazine industry. The Desktop Publishing gives possibilities not only regarding layout but also, graphically sensibility. Desktop Publishing has some benefits, for example, if there is a particular publication with a specific topic and this project belongs to any company, it is necessary to follow all the requirement and strategy of the company, to meet all the prerequisite and avoid any conflicts or chock with the company busyness interests. Triggs, T. (2010) explains that with the rise of the computer in the 1980s, producers of zines began to use desktop publish packages to generate text and layouts. It could be said the method adopted by zine using the Desktop publishing and others photocopier, it allowed the zine writers to produce it with more freedom, and design the way they think is better. The DIY community ends up enjoying from this new method of publishing and breaking the rules of professional magazines.   Electronic Zine vs Printed Zine The e-zine is the short name given to describe the electronic publishing or electronic zine. Since the technology was improving in the 1970s, by the year of 1997-80s, zines and others edition were affected by the development of technology. The improvement of printing technology, such mimeograph and xerography helped zine gain popularity regarding production. It opened the doors and encouraged anyone to produce their version of zine. However, with the rise of Pc and Internet, the zine changed radically, especially for the ones who wanted to increase their audience. It noticed that many writers started to make transition to the web. (Fig 16) Teal Triggs (2010) supports this view by saying ”  Jesrsey Beat (1987) punk e-zine, who started as printed zine and changed to digital.  Before that, in the 1970s, designers and artists began to use a character encoding standard for electronic communication on their e-zines. The ASCII, best known as American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The character has a distinctive characteristic, being one of them the possibility of send data from one computer to another. In case of the e-zine, the reason was to create a computer language. This new word has three different styles, Oldskool, Newskool, and Block. The Oldskool uses lines and slashes, and from that, an image (illustration) or a sentence become visible on the screen. The Block style is more sophisticated and more detailed, the process takes joining blocks all together to create an image or a word. This method allows creating texture in the picture as well. And the last one, the Newsckool which creates image using punctuation marks and symbols, and an example Robot Protection Agency, science fiction e-zine created using ASCII language. This E zine was designed fallowing the Newsckool style, whose the illustration are made of symbols. (Fig. 17.)  Robot Protection Agency is an e-zine from 1997, one of the earliest science fiction e-zines with ASCII text and illustration. This e-zine is a Newschool style, and the creator used symbols to build a character for his story. Another e-zine is Gegenschein84 from 1999(Fig.17). Gegenschein 84 is different from Robot Protection Agency, and it doesn’t use ASCII, it was focused more on the text, a zine which was transited to digital format.  Topics such science fiction and music remained the same, people still do their works. However, more zine publishers started to see an electronic publishing a new route to expand their publication and skills. The electronic edition increased, and some of the zinesters got inspired to go forward with it and found it that publish online would be a suitable to do it. John Labovitz is a zine reviewer, started his zine list 1993 which he reviewed few zines. Labovitz argues that what changes from print publishing from electronic publishing is the method of how the zine makers distribute. The old way of publishing on paper (printed) and the new method of publishing online. That’s precisely a fact, but is it only the method of distribution that brings the difference between zine and E-zine? In what way the digital fanzine publishing changed the write and design of zines? What has the web brought to the zine production? How does the network strengthen zine community?   Producing a zine takes a bit of time, also depending on how professional you want your zine to look, then you go to the stage of sharing your work. The topic can be a critique, a point of view of a particular theme or even thoughts about a fascinating subject. After that, a review about the zine is sent. When it comes to the printed zine, it is much slower compared to digitally. That is one of situation the first fanzine makers faced in early of the community. They had to wait for the feedbacks sent by post, which eventually takes more time than accessing e-zines with feedbacks on the web.  Transfer zine to digitally format has made easier in some aspects, websites gave the possibility for users to upload copies of their printed zines, and this allows the fans to download these copies. It’s a fast a way of getting access to zines. For some people this style wasn’t the best, only people who can afford a computer can have access to these projects, and not everybody feels comfortable with the equipment, some prefer something physical that can put it on the pocket and take it everywhere.  Bruce Labruce is a punk zinester and editor of queercore JD, having run 8 issues, from 1985s to 1991. He presents his arguments, by agree that zines are not meant to be or transferred to the online world by saying Printer method has its qualities, each publication is unique, a product of love and dedication, but once the person finished writing, printed and finally distributed to their readers, the zines it’s out of the date, mainly if the topic is about a recent event. While the online document or file can be edited, information can be added to keep it updated. The news spread quickly, and this strengthens the fanzine community because not only local people were able to have their work, but also people all over the world. Interaction is created between the computer and the readers. However, it can limit personal communication. All the information is on the internet, and the disadvantage of having all the sources on the web results of the none personal interaction between the producer and the reader, most of the time they are behind the computer and sending a simple email. Opposite, printed zine makes possible a full interaction between the creator and the reader. If we go back in the begin of the fanzine when science Fiction fans created clubs, such as The Science Correspondence Club, and they started to organize to discuss and write their adaptation of magazines. As a result of this personal interaction the fanzine community was born, spreading the perception of the fanzine to others groups, also appealing to exchange of ideas between communities. Economically the digital publishing saves more by escaping the price of printing. In conclusion, E-zine offers more advantages than printed zines because makes the work easier and any fan can access the zine on the internet, not only one but thousands of zines with different topics.  The do-it-yourself ethic, adopted by fanzine community whose fought for the production of free literature changed a lot since the begin when sci-fi zinesters started to found clubs to discuss ideas linked to science fiction. So many styles, trends, and groups came to life and even with the development of technology and others tool which the community has benefited from it, they retain the same ambition. The purpose was of publishing their writing and avoiding follow the rules of commercial or professional publishing and communicate with their audience by themselves. During that period, the personal interaction was significant to build a healthy relationship between the writer and the reader. The writing could be around any topic, whether political, story, sports, comic, celebration, science or even music bands, but the primary need was to be heard so that they could pass the message. As the year passed, computer and internet became popular. Both Internet and Pc played an essential part in the fanzine. Many of Literature moved to the internet. Magazines turned into E-magazines, books to e-books and zines to the ezine. Most of the printed format literature made a transition to websites, and zines end up in blogs. Is an e-zine a blog? Can e-zine and blog show the aim of self-publishing movement? Fanzine, Teal Trigs (2010) In an interview with Wired magazines, zine writer Pagan Kennedy, has produced quite few zines and he presented his thoughts on electronic zine: What Kennedy’s thought shows us in the context of stopping calling zine and ezine the same thing is that, the essence of zine is on the process of production. Zine are physical objects, and have a printed zine means be part of the community. Stephen Duncombe present to us how important zines were to those who used to dedicate their life in zines, in the book,  C Parks , 2013) TThe Future of Zines essay, Chloe Parks invites participants to respond or give their opinions on Where zines are heading in the future. Two of the participants support that digital method is a better choice to express and communicate with people. One of the participant points that strongly digital is an excellent way to present or make people read what you have done and zines will be seen as art objects. The internet is prevalent, people communicate via the web, and this has replaced the older way of communication and distribution. In supporting of the printed zine, one participant presents his thoughts saying that in the future there will be fewer zines and more digital publishing, such as blogs. In Fruitmarket Gallery in Edinburgh, every year there is a celebration of artist’s book culture. The festival is dedicated to those want to self-publish their books. As long the self-publishing spirit and DIY exist people always will make zines. o